## 2024 Vol. 48, No. 9

Display Method: |

2024, 48(9): 091001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad582a

**Abstract:**

The proton-proton (

2024, 48(9): 093001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad595b

**Abstract:**

The number of

*ψ*(3686) events collected by the BESIII detector during the 2021 run period is determined to be (2259.3±11.1)×10

^{6}by counting inclusive

*ψ*(3686) hadronic events. The uncertainty is systematic and the statistical uncertainty is negligible. Meanwhile, the numbers of

*ψ*(3686) events collected during the 2009 and 2012 run periods are updated to be (107.7±0.6)×10

^{6}and (345.4±2.6)×10

^{6}, respectively. Both numbers are consistent with the previous measurements within one standard deviation. The total number of

*ψ*(3686) events in the three data samples is (2712.4±14.3)×10

^{6}.

2024, 48(9): 093101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5427

**Abstract:**

We study the SM-like Higgs boson decays

*M*is a vector meson

2024, 48(9): 093102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad4d61

**Abstract:**

Heavy neutral leptons

*N*are the most appealing candidates to generate tiny neutrino masses. We studied the signature of heavy neutral leptons in gauged

*W*boson are treated as fat-jets

*J*. These lepton number violation signatures have quite clean backgrounds at the muon collider. Our simulation shows that a wide range of viable parameter space is within the reach of the 3 TeV muon collider. For instance, with new gauge coupling

2024, 48(9): 093103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad53b7

**Abstract:**

In this study, we evaluated the mass spectra of the prospective

2024, 48(9): 093104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad57a7

**Abstract:**

In this study, we explore the potentials of dipole operators and four-fermion operators at low-energy lepton colliders such as Belle II and the Super Tau Charm Facility (STCF). We utilize high-dimension operators to characterize such anomalous interactions, focusing on those that do not interfere with the Standard Model (SM) contributions. With polarized beams, the four-fermion operators and dipole moment operators can be tested with high precision.

2024, 48(9): 093105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad53bb

**Abstract:**

In the present study, we investigated the decays of the top quark:

2024, 48(9): 093106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5426

**Abstract:**

Motivated by the recent experimental results of branching fractions for

2024, 48(9): 093107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad53bd

**Abstract:**

The unquenched quark model for the light quarkonium and charmonium states is explored in this study. The quark-pair creation operator in the

2024, 48(9): 093108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5663

**Abstract:**

In this study, we explore the detectability of heavy Higgs bosons in the

*CP*-even Higgs

*H*and

*CP*-odd Higgs

*A*, with mass limits set below 10 TeV to ensure detectability. At a collider with an integrated luminosity of 3 ab

2024, 48(9): 093109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5ae9

**Abstract:**

In this study, a comprehensive analysis of jets and underlying events as a function of charged particle multiplicity in proton-proton (

*pp*) collisions at a center-of-mass energy of

2024, 48(9): 093110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5bd5

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the MD-BFKL equation, considering both shadowing and anti-shadowing effects in gluon recombination processes. By deriving analytical expressions for unintegrated gluon distributions through the solution of the MD-BFKL equation, with and without the incorporation of the anti-shadowing effect, we offer new insights into the influence of these effects on the behavior of unintegrated gluon distributions. Our results, when compared to those from the CT18NLO gluon distribution function, demonstrate that the anti-shadowing effect has a notably stronger impact on the characteristics of unintegrated gluon distributions, particularly in regions of high rapidity and momentum. This work significantly contributes to the understanding of gluon recombination mechanisms and their implications in high energy physics.

2024, 48(9): 094001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad50b9

**Abstract:**

The complete and incomplete fusion cross section as well as one-neutron stripping process of

^{6}Li +

^{94}Zr system were measured at the energies around the Coulomb barrier by online

*γ*-ray method. In addition to a 30% suppression factor when compared with the measured total fusion process, the complete fusion cross section in

^{6}Li +

^{94}Zr system was observed to be significantly lower than those in the nearby

^{6}Li +

^{90, 96}Zr system. The new experimental result implies that the coupling with breakup channel in the

^{6}Li-induced fusion processes can be affected by the inner structure of the target, which is still not clear in any available model calculation. For the one-neutron stripping process, the direct production cross sections for each level in

^{95}Zr were extracted and compared with the coupled reaction channel calculation, offering a unique opportunity to examine the single-particle nature of the produced excited states. Given the fact that an overall overestimation of the production cross section for 954-keV and 1618-keV levels was observed in the comparison, further investigation is highly demanded in order to understand the full reaction mechanism for the one-neutron stripping process induced by

^{6}Li.

2024, 48(9): 094101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5428

**Abstract:**

The neutron capture rates and temperature dependent stellar beta decay rates of Mo isotopes are investigated within the framework of the statistical code TALYS v1.96 and the proton neutron quasi particle random phase approximation (

*pn*-QRPA) model. The Maxwellian average cross-section (MACS) and neutron capture rates for the

*n*,

*γ*)

*pn*-QRPA model. Particular attention is paid to the impact of thermally filled excited states in the decaying nuclei (

2024, 48(9): 094102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad4f70

**Abstract:**

Recently, studies have argued that a spherical-like spectrum emerges in the SU3-IBM, thus creating new approaches to understanding

*γ*-softness in realistic nuclei. In a previous study,

*γ*-softness with degeneracy of the ground and quasi-

*γ*bands was observed. In this paper, another special point connected to the middle degenerate point is discussed. It is found to be related to the properties of

^{196}Pt. This emergent

*γ*-softness is also shown to be important for understanding the prolate-oblate asymmetric shape phase transition. The low-lying spectra,

^{196}Pt are discussed, and we show that the new model can account for several observed features. This is the first part of the discussion on the

*γ*-soft-like spectrum of

^{196}Pt.

2024, 48(9): 094103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad53b8

**Abstract:**

Based on the Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS4) mass model, the fission barriers of nuclei are systematically studied. Considering the shell corrections, macroscopic deformation energy, and a phenomenological residual correction, the fission barrier heights for nuclei with

2024, 48(9): 094104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5662

**Abstract:**

In this study, we measured the

^{58}Ni(

*n*,

*p*)

^{58}Co reaction cross section with neutron energies of 1.06, 1.86, and 2.85 MeV. The cross section was measured using neutron activation techniques and

*γ*-ray spectroscopy, and it was compared with cross section data available in the EXFOR. Furthermore, we calculated the covariance matrix of the measured cross section for the aforementioned nuclear reaction. The uncertainties of the theoretical calculation for

^{58}Ni(

*n*,

*p*)

^{58}Co reaction cross section were calculated via Monte Carlo method. In this study, we used uncertainties in the optical model and level density parameters to calculate uncertainties in the theoretical cross sections. The theoretical calculations were performed by using TALYS-1.96. In this study, we aim to analyze the effect of uncertainties of the nuclear model input as well as different experimental variables used to obtain the values of reaction cross section.

2024, 48(9): 095001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad50ab

**Abstract:**

The exponential growth of astronomical datasets provides an unprecedented opportunity for humans to gain insight into the Universe. However, effectively analyzing this vast amount of data poses a significant challenge. In response, astronomers are turning to deep learning techniques, but these methods are limited by their specific training sets, leading to considerable duplicate workloads. To overcome this issue, we built a framework for the general analysis of galaxy images based on a large vision model (LVM) plus downstream tasks (DST), including galaxy morphological classification, image restoration, object detection, parameter extraction, and more. Considering the low signal-to-noise ratios of galaxy images and the imbalanced distribution of galaxy categories, we designed our LVM to incorporate a Human-in-the-loop (HITL) module, which leverages human knowledge to enhance the reliability and interpretability of processing galaxy images interactively. The proposed framework exhibits notable few-shot learning capabilities and versatile adaptability for all the abovementioned tasks on galaxy images in the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys. In particular, for the object detection task, which was trained using 1000 data points, our DST in the LVM achieved an accuracy of 96.7%, while ResNet50 plus Mask R-CNN reached an accuracy of 93.1%. For morphological classification, to obtain an area under the curve (AUC) of ~0.9, LVM plus DST and HITL only requested 1/50 of the training sets that ResNet18 requested. In addition, multimodal data can be integrated, which creates possibilities for conducting joint analyses with datasets spanning diverse domains in the era of multi-messenger astronomy.

2024, 48(9): 095101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad53ba

**Abstract:**

Phase transition is important for understanding the nature and evolution of the black hole thermodynamic system. In this study, we predicted the phase transition of the third-order Lovelock black hole using the winding numbers in complex analysis, and qualitatively validated this prediction by the generalized free energy. For the 7<

*d*<12-dimensional black holes in hyperbolic topology and the 7-dimensional black hole in spherical topology, the winding number obtained is three, which indicates that the system undergoes first-order and second-order phase transitions. For the 7<

*d*<12-dimensional black holes in spherical topology, the winding number is four, and two scenarios of phase transitions exist, one involving a purely second-order phase transition and the other involving simultaneous first-order and second-order phase transitions. This result further deepens the research on black hole phase transitions using the complex analysis.

2024, 48(9): 095102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad50aa

**Abstract:**

In this article, we present a dynamical system analysis of a Dirac-Born-Infeld scalar field in a modified

*ω*), energy density (Ω), and deceleration parameter (

*q*) w.r.t. to e-fold time and comparing to the present value. We conclude the paper by observing how the dynamical system analysis differs in the modified

2024, 48(9): 095103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad50ba

**Abstract:**

In this study, we investigate the detectability of the secondary spin in an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI) system within a modified gravity model coupled with a scalar field. The central black hole, which reduces to a Kerr one, is circularly spiralled by a scalar-charged spinning secondary body on the equatorial plane. The analysis reveals that the presence of the scalar field amplifies the secondary spin effect, allowing for a lower limit of the detectability and an improved resolution of the secondary spin when the scalar charge is sufficiently large. Our findings suggest that secondary spin detection is more feasible when the primary mass is not large, and TianQin is the optimal choice for detection.

2024, 48(9): 095104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5ae4

**Abstract:**

Cosmological observations can be used to weigh neutrinos, but this method is model-dependent, with results relying on the cosmological model considered. If we consider interactions between dark energy and dark matter, the neutrino mass constraints differ from those derived under the standard model. On the contrary, gravitational wave (GW) standard siren observations can measure absolute cosmological distances, helping to break parameter degeneracies inherent in traditional cosmological observations, thereby improving constraints on neutrino mass. This paper examines the constraints on neutrino mass within interacting dark energy (IDE) models and explores how future GW standard siren observations could enhance these results. For multi-messenger GW observations, we consider the joint observations of binary neutron star mergers by third-generation ground-based GW detectors and short

*γ*-ray burst observations by missions similar to the THESEUS satellite project. Using current cosmological observations (CMB+BAO+SN), we obtain an upper limit on the neutrino mass in the IDE models of 0.15 (or 0.16) eV. With the inclusion of GW data, the upper limit on the neutrino mass improves to 0.14 eV. This indicates that in the context of IDE models, the improvement in neutrino mass constraints from GW observations is relatively limited. However, GW observations significantly enhance the constraints on other cosmological parameters, such as matter density parameter, the Hubble constant, and coupling strength between dark energy and dark matter.

2024, 48(9): 095105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad5a70

**Abstract:**

In this study, we investigated the optical properties of charged black holes within the Einstein-Maxwell-scalar (EMS) theory. We evaluated the shadow cast by these black holes and obtained analytical solutions for both the radius of the photon sphere and that of the shadow. We observed that black hole parameters

*γ*and

*β*both influence the shadow of black holes. We also found that the photon sphere and shadow radius increase as a consequence of the presence of the parameter

*γ*. Interestingly, the shadow radius decreases first and then remains unchanged owing to the impact of the parameter

*β*. Finally, we analyzed the weak gravitational lensing and total magnification of lensed images around black holes. We found that the charge of the black holes and the parameter

*β*both have a significant impact, reducing the deflection angle. Similarly, the same behavior for the total magnification was observed, also as a result of the effect of the charge of the black holes and the parameter

*β*.

2024, 48(9): 095106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad53b9

**Abstract:**

In this study, we investigate the bulk-boundary and restricted phase space (RPS) thermodynamics of Rissner-Nordström (R-N) AdS and 6-dimensional charged Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes. Additionally, we examine the topological characteristics of the considered black holes and compare them with the results of extended thermodynamics. We determine that the topological behavior of the bulk-boundary thermodynamics is the same as that of the extended thermodynamics, whereas the RPS thermodynamics exhibits a distinct behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrate that within the RPS formalism, there is only one critical point with a topological charge of +1

2024, 48(9): 095107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad4c58

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we analyze inflationary parameters and swampland conjectures in the presence of a scalar field and Chaplygin models. We examine inflationary parameters, such as slow-roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, spectral index, and tensor-to-scalar ratio, in the presence of a scalar field and Chaplygin gas models. We also discuss recently proposed swampland conjectures. We assume that the inflationary expansion is driven by a standard scalar field with a decay ratio Γ that has a generic power-law dependence on the scalar field

*ϕ*and that the temperature of the thermal bath

*T*is given by

*a*is the inflation decay rate. In a scenario where our model operates within a robust dissipative environment

*R*, scalar spectral index

*r*, running of the scalar spectral index

2024, 48(9): 095108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad57a5

**Abstract:**

Using AdS/CFT correspondence, we analyze the holographic Einstein images via the response function of the complex scalar field as a probe wave on an AdS Schwarzschild scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) black hole (BH). We find that the amplitude of the response function

*α*and increases with decreasing temperature

*T*. The frequency

*ω*of the wave source also plays a significant role in wave periods; as we increase the values of

*ω*, the periods of waves decrease, indicating that the total response function closely depends on the wave source. Further, we investigate the optical appearance of the holographic images of the BH in bulk. We found that the holographic ring always appears with surrounding concentric stripes when the observer is located at the north pole, and an extremely bright ring appears when the observer is at the position of the photon sphere of the BH. This ring changes into a luminosity-deformed ring or a bright light spot as the observational angle changes. The corresponding brightness profiles show that the luminosity of the ring decreases and the shadow radius increases with increasing values of

*α*. The relation between temperature

*T*and the inverse of the horizon

*T*is small at the beginning of the horizon

2024, 48(9): 095109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad57b0

**Abstract:**

The local topological properties of black hole systems can be expressed through winding numbers as defects. To date, AdS black hole thermodynamics are often depicted by the dual parameters of

*d*and highest order

*k*of the Lanczos-Lovelock densities.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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