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Calculation of the wide-angle neutron spectra from the 9Be(d, xn) reaction in a thick beryllium target
Zheng Wei, Jun-Run Wang, Ya-Ling Zhang, Zhi-Wu Huang, Zhan-Wen Ma, Jie Zhang, Yan-Yan Ding, Li Xia, Jian-Yi Li, Xiao-Long Lu, Yu Zhang, Da-Peng Xu, Lei Yang, Ze-En Yao
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/5/054001
The multi-layer computing model is developed to calculate wide-angle neutron spectra, in the range from 0° to 180° with a 5° step, produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with deuterons. The double-differential cross-sections (DDCSs) for the 9Be(d, xn) reaction are calculated using the TALYS-1.8 code. They are in agreement with the experimental data, and are much better than the PHITS-JQMD/GEM results at 15° , 30° , 45° and 60° neutron emission angles for deuteron energy of 10.0 MeV. In the TALYS-1.8 code, neutron contributions from direct reactions (break-up, stripping and knock-out reactions) are controlled by adjustable parameters, which describe the basic characteristics of typical direct reactions and control the relative intensity and the position of the ridgy hillock at the tail of DDCSs. It is found that the typical calculated wide-angle neutron spectra for different neutron emission angles and neutron angular distributions agree quite well with the experimental data for 13.5 MeV deuterons. The multi-layer computing model can reproduce the experimental data reasonably well by optimizing the adjustable parameters in the TALYS-1.8 code. Given the good agreement with the experimental data, the multi-layer computing model could provide better predictions of wide-angle neutron energy spectra, neutron angular distributions and neutron yields for the 9Be(d, xn) reaction neutron source.
Hadronization from color interactions
Guang-Lei Li, Chun-Bin Yang
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/5/054104
A quark coalescence model, based on semi-relativistic molecular dynamics with color interactions among quarks, is presented and applied to pp collisions. A phenomenological potential with two tunable parameters is introduced to describe the color interactions between quarks and antiquarks. The interactions drive the process of hadronization that finally results in different color neutral clusters, which can be identified as hadrons based on some criteria. A Monte Carlo generator PYTHIA is used to generate quarks in the initial state of hadronization, and different values of tunable parameters are used to study the final state distributions and correlations. Baryon-to-meson ratio, transverse momentum spectra, pseudorapidity distributions and forward-backward multiplicity correlations of hadrons produced in the hadronization process, obtained from this model with different parameters, are compared with those from PYTHIA.
Long live the Higgs factory: Higgs decays to long-lived particles at future lepton colliders
Samuel Alipour-fard, Nathaniel Craig, Minyuan Jiang, Seth Koren
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/5/053101
We initiate the study of exotic Higgs decays to long-lived particles (LLPs) at proposed future lepton colliders, focusing on scenarios with displaced hadronic final states. Our analysis entails a realistic tracker-based search strategy involving the reconstruction of displaced secondary vertices and the imposition of selection cuts appropriate for eliminating the largest irreducible backgrounds. The projected sensitivity is broadly competitive with that of the LHC and potentially superior at lower LLP masses. In addition to forecasting branching ratio limits, which may be freely interpreted in a variety of model frameworks, we interpret our results in the parameter space of a Higgs portal Hidden Valley and various incarnations of neutral naturalness, illustrating the complementarity between direct searches for LLPs and precision Higgs coupling measurements at future lepton colliders.
Constituent counting rule and the production of ${{d^*(2380)}}$ at high energies
Yubing Dong, Pengnian Shen
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/5/054102
The constituent counting rule, determining the scaling behavior of the transition amplitudes in an exclusive process at high energies, is applied to probe the internal structure of the newly observed $d^*(2380)$ resonance. Several selected exclusive processes at high energies for the production of $d^*$ are discussed. Results of two structural scenarios for $d^*(2380)$, a hexaquark dominant compact system in the quark degrees of freedom, and a $\pi N\Delta$ three-body bound state in the hadronic degrees of freedom, are analyzed and compared. A rather remarkable difference between the results of these two scenarios for the mentioned processes are addressed.
Elliptic flow of transported and produced protons in Au+Au collisions with the UrQMD model
Biao Tu, Shusu Shi, Feng Liu
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/5/054106
Within the framework of the UrQMD model, by tracing the number of initial quarks in protons, we study the elliptic flow of protons with 3, 2, 1, 0 initial quarks and anti-protons in Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{s_{{\rm NN}}} $ = 7.7, 11.5, 39, 200 GeV. The difference of elliptic flow between protons with 2, 1, 0 initial quarks and anti-protons is smaller than 0, or consistent with 0, respectively. The difference of elliptic flow between transported protons (with 3 initial quarks) and anti-protons is larger than 0 at 7.7, 11.5 and 39 GeV. This is in good agreement with the STAR results at 7.7 and 11.5 GeV, but overestimates the STAR results at 39 GeV. The yield of transported protons with 3 initial quarks is smaller than of protons with 2 and 1 initial quarks, and $ v_{2} $ of all protons is much smaller than the STAR results. The observation of the difference of elliptic flow between transported protons and anti-protons in the UrQMD model partly explains the $ v_{2} $ difference between protons and anti-protons observed in the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
Angular distribution coefficients of Z (W) boson produced in ${{e^+e^-}} $ collisions at ${{\sqrt{s}=240}} $ GeV
Yu-Dong Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/043102
At the designed circular electron-positron collider (CEPC), similar to the hadron collider, the angular distribution coefficients of the decay lepton pair from the produced Z(W) boson in $ e^+ e^- $ collisions are predicted. Their dependence on cos$ \theta_Z $ (cos$ \theta_W $) are presented in four different polarization frames. Furthermore, the value of the angular distribution coefficients in different bins of cos$ \theta_Z $ are presented in the C-S frame. In comparison with the case at the hadron collider, better accurate measurement for Z(W) is expected because there is less background, and W could be reconstructed from its leptonic decay channel. This works provides a method to precisely test the electroweak production mechanism or some effect induced from new physics in the future measurements at the CEPC.
Probing cold nuclear matter effects with the productions of isolated- ${\gamma} $ and ${\gamma} $ +jet in p+Pb collisions at ${\sqrt{{s}_{{NN}}}}= $ 8.16 TeV
Guo-Yang Ma, Wei Dai, Ben-Wei Zhang
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/044104
We investigate cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects on the productions of isolated prompt photons and $ \gamma+ $ jet in proton-lead collisions at $ \rm 8.16 $ TeV under next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations with four parameterizations for nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), i.e., DSSZ, EPPS16, nCTEQ15, and nIMParton. Our theoretical calculations provide good descriptions of the pp baseline in the ATLAS collaboration and make predictions for future experimental results at $ \rm p $ + $ \rm Pb $ collisions. We calculate the dependence of the nuclear modification factor of isolated prompt photons on transverse momentum $ p_{\rm T}^{\gamma} $ and pseudo-rapidity $ \eta^{\gamma} $ at very forward and backward rapidity regions, and we demonstrate that the forward-to-backward yield asymmetries $ Y_{\rm pPb}^{\rm asym} $ as a function of $ p_{\rm T}^{\gamma} $ with different nPDF parameterizations have diverse behaviors. Furthermore, the nuclear modification factor of isolated- $ \gamma+ $ jet $ R_{\rm pPb}^{\gamma\rm Jet} $ as a function of $ \gamma+ $ jet's pseudo-rapidity $ \eta_{\gamma \rm Jet}=\displaystyle\frac{1}{2}(\eta_{\gamma}+\eta_{\rm Jet}) $ at different average transverse momenta $ p_{\rm T}^{\rm avg}=\displaystyle\frac{1}{2}(p_{\rm T}^{\gamma}+ p_{\rm T}^{\rm Jet}) $ has been discussed. This can facilitate a tomographic study of CNM effects with precise locations in a rather wide kinematic region by varying the transverse momenta and rapidities of both isolated photons and jets in p+A collisions.
Dark matter, neutrino mass, cutoff for cosmic-ray neutrino, and the Higgs boson invisible decay from a neutrino portal interaction
Wen Yin
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/045101
We study an effective theory beyond the standard model (SM) where either of the two additional gauge singlets, a Majorana fermion and a real scalar, constitutes all or some fraction of dark matter. In particular, we focus on the masses of the two singlets in the range of $ {\cal{O}} $ (10) MeV- $ {\cal{O}} $ (10) MeV with a neutrino portal interaction, which plays an important role not only in particle physics but also in cosmology and astronomy. We point out that the thermal dark matter abundance can be explained by (co-)annihilation, where the dark matter with a mass greater than 2 GeV can be tested in future lepton colliders, CEPC, ILC, FCC-ee and CLIC, in the light of the Higgs boson invisible decay. When the gauge singlets are lighter than $ {\cal{O}} $ (100) MeV, the interaction can affect the neutrino propagation in the universe due to its annihilation with cosmic background neutrino into the gauge singlets. Although in this case it can not be the dominant dark matter, the singlets are produced by the invisible decay of the Higgs boson at such a rate which is fully within reach of future lepton colliders. In particular, a high energy cutoff of cosmic-ray neutrino, which may account for the non-detection of Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) neutrino or the non-observation of the Glashow resonance, can be set. Interestingly, given the cutoff and the mass (range) of WIMPs, a neutrino mass can be " measured” kinematically.
Precision Higgs physics at the CEPC
Fenfen An, Yu Bai, Chunhui Chen, Xin Chen, Zhenxing Chen, Joao Guimaraes da Costa, Zhenwei Cui, Yaquan Fang, Chengdong Fu, Jun Gao, Yanyan Gao, Yuanning Gao, Shao-Feng Ge, Jiayin Gu, Fangyi Guo, Jun Guo, Tao Han, Shuang Han, Hong-Jian He, Xianke He, Xiao-Gang He, Jifeng Hu, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shan Jin, Maoqiang Jing, Susmita Jyotishmati, , Chia-Ming Kuo, Pei-Zhu Lai, Boyang Li, Congqiao Li, Gang Li, Haifeng Li, Liang Li, Shu Li, Tong Li, Qiang Li, Hao Liang, Zhijun Liang, Libo Liao, Bo Liu, Jianbei Liu, Tao Liu, Zhen Liu, Xinchou Lou, Lianliang Ma, Bruce Mellado, Xin Mo, Mila Pandurovic, Jianming Qian, Zhuoni Qian, Nikolaos Rompotis, Manqi Ruan, Alex Schuy, Lian-You Shan, Jingyuan Shi, Xin Shi, Shufang Su, Dayong Wang, Jin Wang, Lian-Tao Wang, Yifang Wang, Yuqian Wei, Yue Xu, Haijun Yang, Ying Yang, Weiming Yao, Dan Yu, Kaili Zhang, Zhaoru Zhang, Mingrui Zhao, Xianghu Zhao, Ning Zhou
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/043002
The discovery of the Higgs boson with its mass around 125 GeV by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations marked the beginning of a new era in high energy physics. The Higgs boson will be the subject of extensive studies of the ongoing LHC program. At the same time, lepton collider based Higgs factories have been proposed as a possible next step beyond the LHC, with its main goal to precisely measure the properties of the Higgs boson and probe potential new physics associated with the Higgs boson. The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is one of such proposed Higgs factories. The CEPC is an e+e circular collider proposed by and to be hosted in China. Located in a tunnel of approximately 100 km in circumference, it will operate at a center-of-mass energy of 240 GeV as the Higgs factory. In this paper, we present the first estimates on the precision of the Higgs boson property measurements achievable at the CEPC and discuss implications of these measurements.
Basic characteristics of nuclear landscape by improved Weizsäcker-Skyrme-type nuclear mass model
Na-Na MA, Hai-Fei ZHANG, Xiao-Jun BAO, Hong-Fei ZHANG
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/044105
Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME2016) has replenished the latest nuclear binding energy data. Other physical observables, such as the separated energies, decay energies, and the pairing gaps, were evaluated based on the new mass table. An improved Weizsäcker-Skyrme-type (WS-type) nuclear mass model with only 13 parameters was presented, including the correction from two combinatorial radial basis functions (RBFs), where shell and pairing effects are simultaneously dealt with using a Strutinsky-like method. The RBFs code had 2267 updated experimental binding energies as inputs, and their correspondent root-mean square (rms) deviations dropped to 149 keV. For the training of other mass models by RBFs correction, rms deviations are clustered between 100 keV to 200 keV. Compared with other experimental quantities, the rms deviations calculated within the improved WS-type model falls between 100 keV and 250 keV. We extrapolate the binding energies to 12435 nuclei, which covers the ranges $ 8\leqslant Z\leqslant128 $ and $ 8\leqslant N\leqslant251 $ in the framework of the WS-type model with RBFs correction. Simultaneously, the ground state deformations $ \beta_{2, \; 4, \; 6} $ and all parts in the WS-type mass formula are presented in this paper. Finally, we tabulated all calculated characteristics within the improved formula and linked them to nuclear binding energies, one-nucleon and two-nucleon separation energies ( $ S_{\rm{n, \; p, \; 2n, \; 2p}} $ ), $ \alpha $ and $ \beta $ -decay energies ( $ Q_{\alpha} $ and $ Q_{\rm{\beta^-, \; \beta^+, \; EC}} $ ), and the pairing gap $ \Delta_{\rm{n}} $ and $ \Delta_{\rm{p}} $ .
Constraining the anomalous Higgs boson coupling in $H+ \gamma $ production
Liaoshan Shi, Zhijun Liang, Bo Liu, Zhenhui He
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/043001
Higgs boson production in association with a photon (H+ $ \gamma $ ) offers a promising channel to test the Higgs boson to photon coupling at various energy scales. Its potential sensitivity to anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson has not been explored with the proton-proton collision data. In this paper, we reinterpret the latest ATLAS H+ $ \gamma $ resonance search results within the Standard Model effective field theory (EFT) framework, using 36.1 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at $ \sqrt{s}=13 $ TeV. Constraints on the Wilson coefficients of dimension-six EFT operators related to the Higgs boson to photon coupling are provided for the first time in the H+ $ \gamma $ final state at the LHC.
Effective field theory of the Majorana dark matter
Hua-Yong Han, Hong-Yan Wu, Si-Bo Zheng
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/043103
We revisit the thermal Majorana dark matter from the viewpoint of the minimal effective field theory. In this framework, analytical results for dark matter annihilation into Standard Model particles are derived. The dark matter parameter space, subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits, is presented in a model-independent way. Applications to the singlet-doublet and MSSM are presented.
Proton emission from the drip-line nuclei I-Bi using the WKB approximation with relativistic mean-field densities
T. Sahoo, R. N. Panda, S. K. Patra
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/044102
We study the properties of proton rich nuclei reported as proton emitters in the region from I to Bi with Z = 53 to 83 and N = 56 to 102 as a crucial application to the existence of exotic nuclei. The effective relativistic mean-field formalism (E-RMF), with NL3, FSUGarnet, G3 and IOPB-I interactions, is adopted for analysis of the ground state properties of proton emitters. Furthermore, in the E-RMF background, the Wentzel-Karmers-Brillouin (WKB) barrier penetration method is used for the calculation of proton emission half-lives. It is found that the calculated half-lives are in good agreement with the experimental results for all emitters considered in this study.
LFV decays of Z boson in Minimal R-symmetric Supersymmetric Standard Model
Ke-Sheng Sun, Jian-Bin Chen, Xiu-Yi Yang, Sheng-Kai Cui
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/043101
A future Z-factory will offer the possibility of studying rare Z decays $ Z\rightarrow l_1l_2 $ , such as those leading to lepton flavor violation (LFV) final states. In this work, by considering the constraints from radiative two-body decays $ l_2\rightarrow l_1\gamma $ , we investigate the LFV decays $ Z\rightarrow l_1l_2 $ in the framework of the Minimal R-symmetric Supersymmetric Standard Model with two benchmark points from the existing literature. The flavor-violating off-diagonal entries $ \delta^{12} $ , $ \delta^{13} $ and $ \delta^{23} $ are constrained by the current experimental bounds of $ l_2\rightarrow l_1\gamma $ . Considering recent experimental constraints, we also investigate Br( $ Z\rightarrow l_1l_2 $ ) as a function of $ M_D^W $ . The numerical results show that the theoretical predictions of Br( $ Z\rightarrow l_1l_2 $ ) in the MRSSM are several orders of magnitude below the current experimental bounds. The LFV decays $ Z\rightarrow e\tau $ and $ Z\rightarrow \mu\tau $ may be promising observation targets in future experiments.
Global constraints from RHIC and LHC on transport properties of QCD fluids in CUJET/CIBJET framework
Shuzhe Shi, Jinfeng Liao, Miklos Gyulassy
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/044101
We report results of a comprehensive global $ \chi^2 $ analysis of nuclear collision data from RHIC (0.2 ATeV), LHC1 (2.76 ATeV), and recent LHC2 (5.02 ATeV) energies using the updated CUJET framework. The framework consistently combines viscous hydrodynamic fields predicted by VISHNU2+1 (validated with soft $ p_T<2 $ GeV bulk observables) and the DGLV theory of jet elastic and inelastic energy loss generalized to QGP fluids with an sQGMP color structure, including effective semi-QGP color electric quark and gluon as well as emergent color magnetic monopole degrees of freedom constrained by lattice QCD data. We vary the two control parameters of the model (the maximum value of the running QCD coupling, $ \alpha_c $ , and the ratio $ c_m $ of color magnetic to electric screening scales) and calculate the global $ \chi^2(\alpha_c,c_m) $ compared with available jet fragment observables ( $ R_{{\rm AA}}, v_2 $ ). A global $ \chi^2<2 $ minimum is found with $ \alpha_c \approx 0.9\pm 0.1 $ and $ c_m\approx 0.25\pm 0.03 $ . Using CIBJET, the event-by-event (ebe) generalization of the CUJET framework, we show that ebe fluctuations in the initial conditions do not significantly alter our conclusions (except for $ v_3 $ ). An important theoretical advantage of the CUJET and CIBJET frameworks is not only its global $ \chi^2 $ consistency with jet fragment observables at RHIC and LHC and with non-perturbative lattice QCD data, but also its internal consistency of the constrained jet transport coefficient, $ \hat{q}(E,T)/T^3 $ , with the near-perfect fluid viscosity to entropy ratio ( $ \eta/s \sim T^3/\hat{q}\sim 0.1-0.2 $ ) property of QCD fluids near $ T_c $ needed to account for the low $ p_T<2 $ GeV flow observables. Predictions for future tests at LHC with 5.44 ATeV Xe + Xe and 5.02 ATeV Pb + Pb are also presented.
In-medium nucleon-nucleon elastic cross-sections determined from the nucleon induced reaction cross-section data
Li Ou, Xue-ying He
Published: , doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/43/4/044103
Within the framework of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model, the medium modifications of the free nucleon-nucleon elastic cross-sections are investigated. By using various in-medium nucleon-nucleon elastic cross-sections in the model, the nucleon induced reactions on various targets are simulated, and the excitation functions of reaction cross-sections in the energy range from 25 MeV to 1 GeV are calculated. By comparing the calculations with the experimental data, the isospin, density, and momentum dependence of the medium correction factors of free nucleon-nucleon elastic cross-sections are determined.