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2024 No.6
2024 No.5

2024, 48(6): 063102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2f23

**Abstract:**

We constructed a gauge

*CP*phases via the type-I seesaw mechanism. Six quark mases, three quark mixing angles, and the

*CP*phase in the quark sector take the central values whereas Yukawa couplings in the quark sector are diluted in a range of difference of three orders of magnitude by the perturbation theory at the first order. Concerning the neutrino sector, a small neutrino mass is achieved by the type-I seesaw mechanism. Both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies are consistent with the experimental data. The predicted sum of neutrino masses for normal and inverted hierarchies, the effective neutrino masses, and the Dirac

*CP*phase are also consistent with recently reported limits.

2024, 48(6): 065101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad32c0

**Abstract:**

By considering the concept of a unified single fluid model, referred to as modified Chaplygin gas (MCG), which amalgamates dark energy and dark matter, we explore the thermodynamic characteristics of charged anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes existing in an unconventional fluid accompanied by MCG. To accomplish this objective, we derive the equations of state by regarding the charge

*γ*and

*β*have a non-negligible effect on the isenthalpic curve.

2024, 48(6): 063101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2f22

**Abstract:**

The finite mass of the heavy quark suppresses the collimated radiations; this is generally referred to as the dead cone effect. In this paper, we study the distribution of hadron multiplicity over the hadron opening angle with respect to the jet axis for various jet flavors. The corresponding measurement can be the most straightforward and simplest approach to explore the dynamical evolution of the radiations in the corresponding jet, which can expose the mass effect. We also propose a transverse energy-weighted angular distribution, which sheds light on the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative effects in the radiation. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, our calculations show that the dead cone effect can be clearly observed by finding the ratio between the

*b*and light-quark (inclusive) jets; this is expected to be measured at the LHC in the future.

2024, 48(6): 063103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad305f

**Abstract:**

In this study, the spectroscopic parameters of exotic molecular states composed of mesons containing two heavy quarks (scalar - axial and pseudoscalar - axial meson combinations) are investigated within the QCD sum rules. Our findings reveal that molecular states containing charm quarks do not form bound states, whereas states with

*b*-quarks can form exotic molecular states. This observation has significant implications for understanding the structure of these exotic states.

2024, 48(5): 053114. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2363

**Abstract:**

We revisit the spin effects induced by thermal vorticity by calculating them directly from the spin-dependent distribution functions. For spin-1/2 particles, we provide the polarization up to the first order of thermal vorticity and compare it with the usual results calculated from the spin vector. For spin-1 particles, we show that all the non-diagonal elements vanish and there is no spin alignment up to the first order of thermal vortcity. We present the spin alignment at second-order contribution from thermal vorticity. We also show that the spin effects for both Dirac and vector particles receive an extra contribution when the spin direction is associated with the momentum of the particle.

2024, 48(5): 054104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2b55

**Abstract:**

The cross-sections for the

^{175}Lu(

*n*,

*p*)

^{175}Yb,

^{175}Lu(

*n*,

*α*)

^{172}Tm,

^{176}Lu(

*n*,

*α*)

^{173}Tm,

^{175}Lu(

*n*,2

*n*)

^{174m}Lu, and

^{175}Lu(

*n*,2

*n*)

^{174g}Lu reactions at 13.57, 14.03 14.62, and 14.86 MeV neutron energies were measured using an activation technique. The theoretical excitation functions of these reactions were calculated using the Talys-1.95 code. The reaction cross-section data experimentally obtained were analyzed and compared with experimental data reported in the literature, data from five major evaluated nuclear data libraries of IAEA, and theoretical values based on Talys-1.95. The data obtained at some neutron energies agree with some of the data reported in the literature and theoretical values based on Talys-1.95. The consistency of the theoretical curves of excitation functions based on Talys-1.95 with the data obtained in this study and those reported in the literature is higher than that of the evaluation curves of excitation functions for the

^{175}Lu(

*n*,

*p*)

^{175}Yb,

^{175}Lu(

*n*,

*α*)

^{172}Tm, and

^{176}Lu(

*n*,

*α*)

^{173}Tm reactions. This study is helpful because it provides new evaluated reaction cross-section data on lutetium (which is a fusion reactor material), improves the quality of neutron-induced reaction cross section data libraries, and advances the research on related applications.

2024, 48(5): 053112. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2b56

**Abstract:**

We study the production of light nuclei in the coalescence mechanism of Au-Au collisions at midrapidity at

*d*), triton (

*t*), helium-3 (

^{3}He), and helium-4 (

^{4}He). We reproduce data on the yield rapidity densities, yield ratios, and averaged transverse momenta of

*d*,

*t*,

^{3}He, and

^{4}He and provide the proportions of contributions from different coalescence sources for

*t*,

^{3}He, and

^{4}He in their production. We find that besides nucleon coalescence, nucleon+nucleus coalescence and nucleus+nucleus coalescence may play requisite roles in light nucleus production in Au-Au collisions at

2024, 48(5): 053113. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2dbf

**Abstract:**

The principle of maximum conformality (PMC) provides a systematic approach to solve the conventional renormalization scheme and scale ambiguities. Scale-fixed predictions of physical observables using the PMC are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme – a key requirement for renormalization group invariance. In this paper, we derive new degeneracy relations based on the renormalization group equations that involve both the usual

*β*-function and the quark mass anomalous dimension

2024, 48(5): 053111. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2b51

**Abstract:**

A modified deep convolutional generative adversarial network (M-DCGAN) frame is proposed to study the N-dimensional (ND) topological quantities in lattice QCD based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We construct a new scaling structure including fully connected layers to support the generation of high-quality high-dimensional images for the M-DCGAN. Our results suggest that the M-DCGAN scheme of machine learning will help to more efficiently calculate the 1D distribution of topological charge and the 4D topological charge density compared with MC simulation alone.

2024, 48(5): 054103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2b50

**Abstract:**

We use the refined hot spot model to study the valence quark shape of the proton with the deeply virtual Compton scattering at high energies in the color glass condensate framework. To investigate the individual valence quark shape, a novel treatment of the valence quark width is employed. We calculate the cross-sections for coherent and incoherent deeply virtual Compton scattering using, for the first time, different widths (

2024, 48(5): 055105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a60

**Abstract:**

In this study, we analyze the models of the deflection angle of a new Schwarzschild-like black hole (BH) and employ the optical metric of the BH. To achieve this, we use the Gaussian curvature of the optical metric and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, known as the Gibbons-Werner technique, to determine the deflection angle. Furthermore, we examine the deflection angle in the presence of a plasma medium and the effect of the plasma medium on the deflection angle. The deflection angle of the BH solution in the gauged super-gravity is computed using the Keeton-Petters approach. Utilizing the ray-tracing technique, we investigate the shadow of the corresponding BH and analyze the plots of the deflection angle and shadow to verify the influence of the plasma and algebraic thermodynamic parameters on the deflection angle and shadow.

2024, 48(5): 053107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2dc2

**Abstract:**

We study the correlation functions of the

2024, 48(5): 053108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a4c

**Abstract:**

We examined the transverse momentum (

*ϕ*,

*p-p*) at a center-of-mass energy of

*T*) for the Tsallis model and the kinetic or thermal freeze-out temperature (

2024, 48(5): 054102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a66

**Abstract:**

We systematically analyze the quark and gluon gravitational form factors (GFFs) of the proton by connecting the energy-momentum tensor and near-threshold vector meson photoproduction (NTVMP). Specifically, the quark contributions of GFFs are determined by applying global fitting to the cross section of the lightest vector meson

*D*-term distribution through direct analytical continuation of deeply virtual Compton scattering experimental data. If errors are considered, the results obtained with RVP are essentially consistent with those obtained by NTVMP. Moreover, the comprehensive information on GFFs helps to uncover the mass distribution and mechanical properties inside the proton. This study is not only an important basis for delving into the enigmatic properties of the proton, but also has significance for theoretically guiding future JLab and EIC experimental measurements.

2024, 48(5): 053110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a65

**Abstract:**

Motivated by the large branching fractions of

2024, 48(5): 053109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2e83

**Abstract:**

The Page curve plotted using the typical random state approximation is not applicable to a system with conserved quantities, such as the evaporation process of a charged black hole, during which the electric charge does not macroscopically radiate out with a uniform rate. In this context, the symmetry-resolved entanglement entropy may play a significant role in describing the entanglement structure of such a system. We attempt to impose constraints on microscopic quantum states to match the macroscopic phenomenon of charge radiation during black hole evaporation. Specifically, we consider a simple qubit system with conserved spin/charge serving as a toy model for the evaporation of charged black holes. We propose refined rules for selecting a random state with conserved quantities to simulate the distribution of charges during the different stages of evaporation and obtain refined Page curves that exhibit distinct features in contrast to the original Page curve. We find that the refined Page curve may have a different Page time and exhibit asymmetric behavior on both sides of the Page time. Such refined Page curves may provide a more realistic description for the entanglement between the charged black hole and radiation during the evaporation process.

2024, 48(5): 051001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2b52

**Abstract:**

We consider a new cosmological model (called

2024, 48(5): 055103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2ce5

**Abstract:**

We investigate the main features of a disformal Kerr black hole merger in quadratic degenerate higher-order scalar-tensor theories. In the ringdown stage of the black hole merger, for the prograde orbit, the real part of the quasinormal modes decreases with an increase in the disformal parameter, and the imaginary part also decreases, except in the Kerr case for a large spin parameter. However, for the retrograde orbit, the real part increases with an increase in the disformal parameter, and the imaginary part always decreases with it. For the approximate final spin, regardless of an equal spin, unequal spin, or generic spin configuration merger, the final black hole spin always increases with an increase in the disformal parameter. Our results show that the disformal parameter in the disformal Kerr solution and the MOG parameter in the Kerr-MOG case have obviously different effects on the black hole merger, which suggests the differences between these two spacetime structures.

2024, 48(5): 055104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2060

**Abstract:**

In the present study, we investigate the dynamics of test particles around a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence and immersed in a scalar string cloud field. We start our study by defining the possible values of the quintessence and cloud of string parameters corresponding to the existence of the black hole horizon for fixed values of the parameters of the equation of state for dark energy. We also study the effects of the effective potential on the circular motion, energy, and angular momentum of the test particles together with the innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs). We investigate the fundamental frequencies in the particle oscillations along stable circular orbits. We relate the stability of the orbits to the Lyapunov exponent, and the chaotic behavior is studied graphically. Finally, we apply the fundamental frequencies to describe quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) and find that, in the presence of both fields, low-frequency twin-peak QPOs are not observed. In addition, we obtain the constraint values for the string cloud parameter and mass of the black hole candidates located in the center of the microquasars GRO J1655-40 and GRS 1915+105 as well as the Milky Way galaxy.

2024, 48(5): 053106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad24d1

**Abstract:**

Here, we study the production of charmonium pentaquarks

*B*-meson decays under the flavor

2024, 48(5): 053001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2674

**Abstract:**

Decays of unstable heavy particles usually involve the coherent sum of several amplitudes, like in a multiple slit experiment. Dedicated amplitude analysis techniques have been widely used to resolve these amplitudes for better understanding of the underlying dynamics. In special cases where two spin-1/2 particles and two (pseudo-) scalar particles are present in the process, multiple equivalent solutions are found owing to intrinsic symmetries in the summed probability density function. In this study, the problem of multiple solutions is discussed, and a scheme to overcome this problem is proposed by fixing some free parameters. Toys are generated to validate the strategy. A new approach to align the helicities of initial- and final-state particles in different decay chains is also introduced.

2024, 48(5): 053105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a4b

**Abstract:**

We investigate the dynamics of a first-order quark-hadron transition via homogeneous thermal nucleation in the two-flavor quark-meson model. The contribution of the fermionic vacuum loop in the effective thermodynamics potential and phase diagram, together with the location of the critical endpoint (CEP), is obtained in the temperature and chemical potential plane. For weak and strong first-order phase transitions, by taking the temperature as a variable, the critical bubble profiles, evolutions of the surface tension, and saddle-point action in the presence of a nucleation bubble are numerically calculated in detail when fixing the chemical potentials at

2024, 48(5): 053104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a62

**Abstract:**

We investigate the two loop electroweak corrections to

*B*meson rare decays

2024, 48(5): 054101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad260b

**Abstract:**

In this study, based on the framework of the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM), we systematically investigate the cluster radioactivity half-lives of 26 trans-lead nuclei by considering the cluster preformation probability, which possesses a simple mass dependence on the emitted cluster according to R. Blendowske and H. Walliser [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1930 (1988)]. Moreover, we investigate 28 different versions of the proximity potential formalisms, which are the most complete known proximity potential formalisms proposed to describe proton radioactivity, two-proton radioactivity,

*α*decay, heavy-ion radioactivity, quasi-elastic scattering, fusion reactions, and other applications. The calculated results show that the modified forms of proximity potential 1977, denoted as Prox.77-12, and proximity potential 1981, denoted as Prox.81, are the most appropriate proximity potential formalisms for the study of cluster radioactivity, as the root-mean-square deviation between experimental data and relevant theoretical results obtained is the least; both values are 0.681. For comparison, the universal decay law (UDL) proposed by Qi

*et al.*[Phys. Rev. C 80, 044326 (2009)], unified formula of half-lives for

*α*decay and cluster radioactivity proposed by Ni

*et al.*[Phys. Rev. C 78, 044310 (2008)], and scaling law (SL) in cluster radioactivity proposed by Horoi

*et al.*[J. Phys. G 30, 945 (2004)] are also used. In addition, utilizing CPPM with Prox.77-12, Prox.77-1, Prox.77-2, and Prox.81, we predict the half-lives of 51 potential cluster radioactive candidates whose cluster radioactivity is energetically allowed or observed but not yet quantified in NUBASE2020. The predicted results are in the same order of magnitude as those obtained using the compared semi-empirical and/or empirical formulae. At the same time, the competition between

*α*decay and cluster radioactivity of these predicted nuclei is discussed. By comparing the half-lives, this study reveals that

*α*decay predominates.

2024, 48(5): 055102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a4d

**Abstract:**

Gravity models given by higher-order scalar curvature corrections are believed to bear important consequences. Einstein-Bel-Robinson (EBR) gravity with quartic curvature modification motivated Sajadi

*et al*. to explore static spherically symmetric black hole solutions using perturbative methods. In this study, inspired by their work, we investigate AdS black hole shadows in EBR gravity and demonstrate how the gravity parameter alters the energy emission rate. Finally, we address the same problem in the presence of plasma, because the black holes are thought to be surrounded by a medium that changes the geodesic of photons.

2024, 48(5): 053101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2441

**Abstract:**

We present one-loop contributions for

2024, 48(5): 053102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2442

**Abstract:**

In this study, considering the conservation of isospin in the strong decays, we investigate the strong decays of the pentaquark molecule candidate

2024, 48(5): 055101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad25f6

**Abstract:**

We investigate the phenomenon of pair production of massive scalar particles with magnetic charge near the horizon of a magnetized dyonic Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. The intrinsic symmetry between the electric and magnetic quantities in the Einstein-Maxwell equations suggests that the pair can be generated through Hawking radiation and the Schwinger effect, provided that the Dirac quantization condition is satisfied.

2024, 48(5): 053103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ad2a64

**Abstract:**

In the present study, we applied Tsallis non-extensive statistics to investigate the thermodynamic properties and phase diagram of quark matter in the Polyakov chiral

*SU*(3) quark mean field model. Within this model, the properties of the quark matter were modified through the scalar fields

*ϕ*, and Polyakov fields Φ and

*q*, and the results were compared to those of the extensive case (

*q*-exponential form. The influence of the

*q*parameter on the thermodynamic properties, pressure, energy, and entropy density, as well as trace anomaly, was investigated. The speed of sound and specific heat with non-extensive effects were also studied. Furthermore, the effect of non-extensivity on the deconfinement phase transition as well as the chiral phase transition of

*s*quarks was explored. We found that the critical end point (CEP), which defines the point in the

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