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2020, 44(8): 083001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083001

**Abstract:**

The Born cross section and dressed cross section of

2020, 44(8): 083101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083101

**Abstract:**

The baryon

2020, 44(8): 083102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083102

**Abstract:**

Using lattice configurations for quantum chromodynamics (QCD) generated with three domain-wall fermions at a physical pion mass, we obtain a parameter-free prediction of QCD’s renormalisation-group-invariant process-independent effective charge,

2020, 44(8): 083103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083103

**Abstract:**

The preference of the normal neutrino mass ordering from the recent cosmological constraint and the global fit of neutrino oscillation experiments does not seem like a wise choice at first glance since it obscures the neutrinoless double beta decay and hence the Majorana nature of neutrinos. Contrary to this naive expectation, we point out that the actual situation is the opposite. The normal neutrino mass ordering opens the possibility of excluding the higher solar octant and simultaneously measuring the two Majorana

*CP*phases in future

*CP*phases can be simultaneously determined. Thus, the normal neutrino mass ordering clearly shows phenomenological advantages over the inverted one.

2020, 44(8): 083104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083104

**Abstract:**

We describe predictions for top quark pair differential distributions at hadron colliders, by combining the next-to-next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics calculations and next-to-leading order electroweak corrections with double resummation at the next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy of threshold logarithms and small-mass logarithms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present such a combination, which incorporates all known perturbative information. Numerical results are presented for the invariant-mass distribution, transverse-momentum distribution, and rapidity distributions.

2020, 44(8): 083105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083105

**Abstract:**

We investigate the tensor form factors of

*A*transitions within the standard light-front (SLF) and the covariant light-front (CLF) quark models (QMs). The self-consistency and Lorentz covariance of CLF QM are analyzed via these quantities, and the effects of zero-mode are discussed. For the

*A*transitions, besides the inconsistency between the results extracted via longitudinal and transverse polarization states, which is caused by the residual

*A*transitions are updated within the CLF QM with a self-consistent scheme.

2020, 44(8): 083106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083106

**Abstract:**

We study the phase transition between the pion condensed phase and normal phase, as well as chiral phase transition in a two flavor (

*T*. By self-consistently solving the equations of motion, we obtain the phase diagram in the plane of

*T*. The pion condensation appears together with a massless Nambu-Goldstone boson

2020, 44(8): 083107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083107

**Abstract:**

We study the rare decays

2020, 44(8): 083108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083108

**Abstract:**

This exploratory study computes two-photon decay widths of pseudo-scalar (

2020, 44(8): 083109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083109

**Abstract:**

A Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati (DGP) brane-world model with perfect fluid brane matter including a Brans-Dicke (BD) scalar field on brane was utilized to investigate the problem of the quark-hadron phase (QHP) transition in early evolution of the Universe. The presence of the BD scalar field arises with several modified terms in the Friedmann equation. Because the behavior of the phase transition strongly depends on the basic evolution equations, even a small change in these relations might lead to interesting results about the time of transition. The phase transition is investigated in two scenarios, namely the first-order phase transition and smooth crossover phase transition. For the first-order scenario, which is used for the intermediate temperature regime, the evolution of the physical quantities, such as temperature and scale factor, are investigated before, during, and after the phase transition. The results show that the transition occurs in about a micro-second. In the following part, the phenomenon is studied by assuming a smooth crossover transition, where the lattice QCD data is utilized to obtain a realistic equation for the state of the matter. The investigation for this part is performed in the high and low-temperature regimes. Using the trace anomaly in the high-temperature regime specifies a simple equation of state, which states that the quark-gluon behaves like radiation. However, in the low-temperature regime, the trace anomaly is affected by discretization effects, and the hadron resonance gas model is utilized instead. Using this model, a more realistic equation of state is found in the low-temperature regime. The crossover phase transition in both regimes is considered. The results determine that the transition lasts around a few micro-seconds. Further, the transition in the low-temperature regime occurs after the transition in the high-temperature regime.

2020, 44(8): 083110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/083110

**Abstract:**

We demonstrate that a scotogenic dark symmetry can be obtained as a residual subgroup of the global

2020, 44(8): 084101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/084101

**Abstract:**

We study heavy flavor properties at finite temperature in the framework of a relativistic potential model. Using an improved method to solve the three-body Dirac equation, we determine a universal set of model parameters for both mesons and baryons by fitting heavy flavor masses in vacuum. Taking heavy quark potential from lattice QCD simulations in hot medium, we systematically calculate heavy flavor binding energies and averaged sizes as functions of the temperature. The meson and baryons are separately sequentially dissociated in the quark-gluon plasma, and the mesons can survive at higher temperatures owing to the stronger potential between quark-antiquark pairs than that between quark-quark pairs.

2020, 44(8): 084102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/084102

**Abstract:**

In this study, we analyze the electroproduction of the LHCb pentaquark states with the assumption that they are resonant states. Our main concern is to investigate the final state distribution in the phase space to extract a feeble pentaquark signal from a large non-resonant background. The results indicate that the signal to background ratio will increase significantly with a proper kinematic cut, which will be beneficial for future experimental analysis.

2020, 44(8): 084103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/084103

**Abstract:**

In this study, two novel improvements for the theoretical calculation of neutron distributions are presented. First, the available experimental proton distributions are used as a constraint rather than inferred from the calculation. Second, the recently proposed distribution formula, d3pF, is used for the neutron density, which is more detailed than the usual shapes, for the first time in a nuclear structure calculation. A semi-microscopic approach for binding energy calculation is considered in this study. However, the proposed improvements can be introduced to any other approach. The ground state binding energy and neutron density distribution of

^{208}Pb nucleus are calculated by optimizing the binding energy considering three different distribution formulae. The implementation of the proposed improvements leads to qualitative and quantitative improvements in the calculation of the binding energy and neutron density distribution. The calculated binding energy agrees with the experimental value, and the calculated neutron density exhibits fluctuations within the nuclear interior, which corresponds with the predictions of self-consistent approaches.

2020, 44(8): 084104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/084104

**Abstract:**

Using partially restored isospin symmetry, we calculate the nuclear matrix elements for a special decay mode of a two-neutrino double beta decay – the decay to the first 2

^{+}excited states. Employing the realistic CD–Bonn nuclear force, we analyze the dependence of the nuclear matrix elements on the isovector and isoscalar parts of proton–neutron particle–particle interactions. The dependence on the different nuclear matrix elements is observed, and the results are explained. We also provide the phase space factors using numerical electron wavefunctions and properly chosen excitation energies. Finally, we present our results for the half-lives of this decay mode for different nuclei.

2020, 44(8): 084105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/084105

**Abstract:**

This study employs the relativistic mean field theory with the Green's function method to study the single-particle resonant states. In contrast to our previous work [Phys. Rev. C,

**90**: 054321 (2014)], the resonant states are identified by searching for the poles of Green's function or the extremes of the density of states. This new approach is highly effective for all kinds of resonant states, no matter whether they are broad or narrow. The dependence on the space size for the resonant energies, widths, and the density distributions in the coordinate space has been checked and was found to be very stable. Taking

^{120}Sn as an example, four new broad resonant states

2020, 44(8): 084107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/084107

**Abstract:**

The solutions of the relativistic viscous hydrodynamics for longitudinally expanding fireballs are investigated with the Navier-Stokes theory and Israel-Stewart theory. The energy and the Euler conservation equations for the viscous fluid are derived in Rindler coordinates, by assuming that the longitudinal expansion effect is small. Under the perturbation assumption, an analytical perturbation solution for the Navier-Stokes approximation and numerical solutions for the Israel-Stewart approximation are presented. The temperature evolution with both shear viscous effect and longitudinal acceleration effect in the longitudinal expanding framework are presented. The specific temperature profile shows symmetric Gaussian shape in the Rindler coordinates. Further, we compare the results from the Israel-Stewart approximation with the results from the Bjorken and the Navier-Stokes approximations, in the presence of the longitudinal acceleration expansion effect. We found that the Israel-Stewart approximation gives a good description of the early stage evolutions than the Navier-Stokes theory.

2020, 44(8): 084106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/084106

**Abstract:**

By modeling the fragmentation process using a dynamic model and permitting only evaporation in the statistical code, the main features of a projectile fragmentation at 600 MeV/u were considered in our previous study [Phys. Rev. C,

**98**: 014610 (2018)]. In this study, we extend this to the isospin dependence of a projectile fragmentation at several hundreds of MeV/u. We searched for isospin observables related to the isospin fractionation to extract the symmetry energy, and found that at the pre-equilibrium stage of the collisions an isospin diffusion will take place and affect the isospin of the final fragments. The isospin fractionation plays a part during the fragmenting stage. Compared to the soft symmetry energy, the stiff symmetry energy provides a smaller repulsive force for neutrons and an attractive force for the protons in a neutron-rich system at a subnormal density, and hence causes a smaller isospin asymmetry of the gas phase, leaving a more neutron-rich liquid phase. An observable robust isospin is proposed to extract the slope of the symmetry energy at normal density based on the isospin dependence of the projectile fragmentation at hundreds of MeV/u.

2020, 44(8): 085001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/085001

**Abstract:**

As a next-generation complex extensive air shower array with a large field of view, the large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) is very sensitive to the very-high-energy gamma rays from ~300 GeV to 1 PeV and may thus serve as an important probe for the heavy dark matter (DM) particles. In this study, we make a forecast for the LHAASO sensitivities to the gamma-ray signatures resulting from DM decay in dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) within the LHAASO field of view. Both individual and combined limits for 19 dSphs incorporating the uncertainties of the DM density profile are explored. Owing to the large effective area and strong capability of the photon-proton discrimination, we find that LHASSSO is sensitive to the signatures from decaying DM particles above

Uplifting of AdS type to quintessence-like potential induced by frozen large-scale Lorentz violation

2020, 44(8): 085101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/085101

**Abstract:**

The quintessence-like potential of vacuum energy can meet the requirements from both quantum gravity and the accelerating expansion of the universe. The anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum in string theory must be lifted to the meta-stable dS vacuum with a positive vacuum energy density to explain the accelerating expansion of the universe. Based on possible large-scale Lorentz violation, we define an effective cosmological constant that depends not only on the bare cosmological constant but also on the Lorentz violation effect. We find that the evolution of the effective cosmological constant exhibits the behavior of the quintessence potential when the bare cosmological constant originates from the string landscape, in contrast to the existence of a local minimum during evolution when the bare cosmological constant is supplied by the swampland. The critical value of the bare cosmological constant is approximately zero for the behavior transition. The frozen large-scale Lorentz violation can uplift the AdS vacua to an effective quintessence-like one in this sense.

2020, 44(8): 085102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/085102

**Abstract:**

The spatial-dependent propagation (SDP) model has been demonstrated to account for the spectral hardening of both primary and secondary Cosmic Rays (CRs) nuclei above about 200 GV. In this work, we further apply this model to the latest AMS-02 observations of electrons and positrons. To investigate the effect of different propagation models, both homogeneous diffusion and SDP are compared. In contrast to the homogeneous diffusion, SDP brings about harder spectra of background CRs and thus enhances background electron and positron fluxes above tens of GeV. Thereby, the SDP model could better reproduce both electron and positron energy spectra when introducing a local pulsar. The influence of the background source distribution is also investigated, where both axisymmetric and spiral distributions are compared. We find that considering the spiral distribution leads to a larger contribution of positrons for energies above multi-GeV than the axisymmetric distribution. In the SDP model, when including a spiral distribution of sources, the all-electron spectrum above TeV energies is thus naturally described. In the meantime, the estimated anisotropies in the all-electrons spectrum show that in contrary to the homogeneous diffusion model, the anisotropy under SDP is well below the observational limits set by the Fermi-LAT experiment, even when considering a local source.

2020, 44(8): 085103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/085103

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we propose a homogeneous curvaton mechanism that operates during the preheating process and in which the effective mass is running (i.e., its potential consists of a coupling term and an exponential term whose contribution is subdominant thereto). This mechanism can be classified into either narrow resonance or broad resonance cases, with the spectral index of the curvaton consituting the deciding criteria. The inflationary potential is that of chaotic inflation (i.e., a quadratic potential), which could result in a smooth transition into the preheating process. The entropy perturbations are converted into curvature perturbations, which we validate using the

Observational constraints on Rastall gravity from rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies

2020, 44(8): 085104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/44/8/085104

**Abstract:**

Rastall gravity is a modification of Einstein's general relativity in which the energy-momentum conservation is not satisfied and depends on the gradient of the Ricci curvature. It is currently in dispute whether Rastall gravity is equivalent to general relativity (GR). In this work, we constrain the theory using the rotation curves of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. By fitting the rotation curves of LSB galaxies, we obtain parameter

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

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