## 2023 Vol. 47, No. 2

Display Method: |

2023, 47(2): 023001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9d29

**Abstract:**

Using electron-positron annihilation data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb

2023, 47(2): 023101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9dea

**Abstract:**

The decay constants of the low lying

*S*-wave

*S*-wave charmonium and bottomium states are given in the appendixes.

2023, 47(2): 023102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9de9

**Abstract:**

Recently, some progress has been made in the experiments on double-heavy tetraquarks, such as

2023, 47(2): 023103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9fbd

**Abstract:**

By solving two body Dirac equations with potentials at finite temperature, we calculate the dissociation temperature

2023, 47(2): 023104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca38f

**Abstract:**

Using the perturbative QCD approach, we studied the effects of the hadronic structure of photons on the pure annihilation rediative decays

2023, 47(2): 023105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca200

**Abstract:**

We present a general method of constructing unfactorizable on-shell amplitudes (amplitude basis) and build up their one-to-one correspondence to the independent and complete operator basis in effective field theory (EFT). We apply our method to the Standard Model EFT and identify the amplitude basis in dimensions 5 and 6, which correspond to the Weinberg operator and operators in the Warsaw basis, except for some linear combinations.

2023, 47(2): 023106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca466

**Abstract:**

The nonlocal chiral effective theory is applied to investigate the electromagnetic and strange form factors of nucleons. The bubble and tadpole diagrams are included in the calculation. With the contributions from bubble and tadpole diagrams, the obtained electromagnetic form factors are close to the results without these contributions as long as the low energy constants

2023, 47(2): 023107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca585

**Abstract:**

The

*W*boson mass recently reported by the CDF collaboration shows a deviation from the standard model prediction with an excess at the

*W*boson mass by 10 MeV at most. The

*W*boson mass and also offer a viable dark matter candidate with a mass ranging from several hundred GeV to TeV, which may be detected by future dark matter direct detection experiments with improved sensitivities.

2023, 47(2): 023108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca4c2

**Abstract:**

A measurement of the

*Z*production cross-section in

2023, 47(2): 023109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca465

**Abstract:**

Dimuon events induced by charm-quark productions from neutrino deep inelastic scattering (DIS) processes have been studied in traditional DIS experiments for decades. The recent progress in neutrino telescopes makes it possible to search for such dimuon events at energies far beyond the laboratory scale. In this study, we construct a simulation framework to calculate yields and distributions of dimuon signals in an IceCube-like km

^{3}scale neutrino telescope. Owing to the experimental limitation in the resolution of double-track lateral distance, only dimuons produced outside the detector volume are considered. Detailed information about simulation results for a 10-year exposure is presented. As an earlier paper[Physical Review D 105, 093005 (2022)] and ours report on a similar situation, we use that paper as a baseline to conduct comparisons. We then estimate the impacts of different calculation methods of muon energy losses. Finally, we study the experimental potential of dimuon searches under the hypothesis of single-muon background only. Our results based on a simplified double-track reconstruction indicate a moderate sensitivity, especially with the ORCA configuration. Further developments on both the reconstruction algorithm and possible detector designs are thus required and are under investigation.

2023, 47(2): 024001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca1ab

**Abstract:**

The fission yield data in the 14 MeV energy neutron induced fission of

^{238}U play an important role in decay heat calculations and generation-IV reactor designs. In order to accurately measure fission product yields (FPYs) of

^{238}U induced by 14 MeV neutrons, the cumulative yields of fission products ranging from

^{92}Sr to

^{147}Nd in the

^{238}U(

*n*,

*f*) reaction with a 14.7 MeV neutron were determined using an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The 14.7 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam was provided by the K-400 D-T neutron generator at China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). Fission products were measured by a low background high purity germanium gamma spectrometer. The neutron flux was obtained from the

^{93}Nb (

*n*, 2

*n*)

^{92m}Nb reaction, and the mean neutron energy was calculated using the cross-section ratios for the

^{90}Zr(

*n*, 2

*n*)

^{89}Zr and

^{93}Nb(

*n*, 2

*n*)

^{92m}Nb reactions. With a series of corrections, high precision cumulative yields of 20 fission products were obtained. Our FPYs for the

^{238}U(

*n*,

*f*) reaction at 14.7 MeV were compared with the existing experimental nuclear reaction data and evaluated nuclear data, respectively. The results will be helpful in the design of a generation-IV reactor and the construction of evaluated fission yield databases.

2023, 47(2): 024002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9e9b

**Abstract:**

The reaction cross-sections of

^{238}U (

*n*,

*γ*)

^{239}U have been experimentally determined at neutron energies of 6.117 ± 0.119 MeV, 4.626 ± 0.086 MeV, and 3.622 ± 0.348 MeV employing the relative activation approach along with the off-line γ-ray spectroscopy method. The D (

*d*,

*n*)

^{3}He reaction was utilized to obtain monoenergetic neutrons of the required energy, and the

^{197}Au (

*n*,

*γ*)

^{198}Au reaction cross-sections were adopted as the referential standard to ascertain the neutron capture cross-sections of

^{ 238}U. Furthermore, the effects of low-energy scattered neutrons, neutron fluence fluctuations, counting of geometric corrections when measuring

*γ*-rays, and neutron and

*γ*-ray self-absorption caused by the sample thickness have been considered and revised in the present work. For a comparison with experimental results, the cross-sections of the

^{238}U (

*n*,

*γ*)

^{239}U reaction were calculated theoretically with the original parametric TALYS-1.9 program. The experimental measurements were in contrast to previous experimental results and the evaluation data available for ROSFOND-2010, CENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VIII.0.

2023, 47(2): 024101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9f0a

**Abstract:**

This study considers a principal possibility of creating a nuclear light source of the vacuum ultra violet (VUV) range based on the

*γ*quanta in the VUV range. The luminosity of the thorium nuclear light source is approximately

*γ*radiation from the

2023, 47(2): 024102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca38e

**Abstract:**

The charge exchange spin-dipole (SD) excitations of

*p*,

*n*)

*n*,

*p*)

*J*as well as its slope parameter

*L*, a constraint from the extracted

*J*to

*L*to

2023, 47(2): 024103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca38d

**Abstract:**

In this study, we perform Tsallis Blast-Wave analysis on the transverse momentum spectra of identified hadrons produced in a wide range of collision systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) including pp, pPb, XeXe, and PbPb collisions. The kinetic freeze-out properties varying with event multiplicity are investigated across these systems. We find that the extracted kinetic freeze-out temperature, radial flow velocity, and non-extensive parameter exhibit a universal scaling behavior for these systems with very different geometric sizes, especially when the independent baryon Tsallis non-extensive parameter is considered. This universality may indicate the existence of a unified partonic evolution stage in different collision systems at the LHC energies.

2023, 47(2): 024104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9e4b

**Abstract:**

An analysis of the breakup of the

2023, 47(2): 024105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9fb8

**Abstract:**

In relativistic heavy ion collisions, the fluctuations of initial entropy density convert to the correlations of final state hadrons in momentum space through the collective expansion of strongly interacting QCD matter. Using a (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic program, CLVisc, we consider whether the nuclear structure, which provides initial state fluctuations as well as correlations, can affect the final state of heavy ion collisions, and whether one can find signals of

*α*cluster structures in oxygen using final state observables in

*α*clusters, the deformed Woods-Saxon distribution, and a spherical symmetric Woods-Saxon distribution. Our results show that the charged multiplicity as a function of centrality and the elliptic flow at the most central collisions using the four-

*α*structure differs from those with the Woods-Saxon and deformed Woods-Saxon distributions, which may help to identify

*α*clustering structures in oxygen nuclei.

2023, 47(2): 024106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca4c1

**Abstract:**

Jet quenching has successfully served as a hard probe to study the properties of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). As a multi-particle system, jets require time to develop from a highly virtual parton to a group of partons close to mass shells. In this study, we present a systematical analysis on the effects of this formation time on jet quenching in relativistic nuclear collisions. Jets from initial hard scatterings were simulated with Pythia, and their interactions with QGP were described using a Linear Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model that incorporates both elastic and inelastic scatterings between jet partons and the thermal medium. Three different estimations of the jet formation time were implemented and compared, including instantaneous formation, formation from single splitting, and formation from sequential splittings, before which no jet-medium interaction was assumed. We found that deferring the jet-medium interaction with a longer formation time not only affects the overall magnitude of the nuclear modification factor of jets but also its dependence on the jet transverse momentum.

2023, 47(2): 024107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca64f

**Abstract:**

Heavy quark observables are applied to probe the initial energy density distribution with violation of longitudinal boost invariance produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Using an improved Langevin model coupled to a (3+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model, we study the nuclear modification factor (

2023, 47(2): 024108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac988a

**Abstract:**

We study the baryon-baryon interactions with strangeness

*SU*(3) flavor symmetry and its breaking but also the baryon-baryon interactions derived in covariant chiral effective field theory.

2023, 47(2): 025101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9fbe

**Abstract:**

The objective of this work is to generate a general formalism of

**K-**essence emergent geometry with the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) variety of action, where

*ϕ*is the

**K-**essence scalar field. The emergent gravity metric (

*ρ*), pressure (

*p*), and equation of state parameter (

*t*) based on parametric values are interestingly consistent with the dark energy domination theory, and hence the accelerating features. We also highlight the corresponding energy conditions and constraints of the

2023, 47(2): 025102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9fbb

**Abstract:**

In this study, the gravitational deflection angle of photons in the weak field limit (or the weak deflection angle) and shadow cast by the electrically charged and spherically symmetric static Kiselev black hole (BH) in the string cloud background are investigated. The influences of the BH charge

*Q*, quintessence parameter

*γ*, and string cloud parameter

*a*on the weak deflection angle are studied using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, in addition to studying the influences on the radius of photon spheres and size of the BH shadow in the spacetime geometry of the charged-Kiselev BH in string clouds. Moreover, we study the effects of plasma (uniform and non-uniform) on the weak deflection angle and shadow cast by the charged-Kiselev BH surrounded by the clouds of strings. In the presence of a uniform/nonuniform plasma medium, an increase in the string cloud parameter

*a*increases the deflection angle

*α*. In contrast, a decrease in the BH charge

*Q*decreases the deflection angle. Further, we observe that an increase in the BH charge

*Q*causes a decrease in the size of the shadow of the BH. We notice that, with an increase in the values of the parameters

*γ*and

*a*, the size of the BH shadow increases, and therefore, the intensity of the gravitational field around the charged-Kiselev BH in string clouds increases. Thus, the gravitational field of the charged-Kiselev BH in the string cloud background is stronger than the field produced by the pure Reissner-Nordstrom BH. Moreover, we use the data released by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration, for the supermassive BHs M87* and Sgr A*, to obtain constraints on the values of the parameters

*γ*and

*a*.

2023, 47(2): 025103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca07c

**Abstract:**

We use the monodromy method to investigate the asymptotic quasinormal modes of regular black holes based on the explicit Stokes portraits. We find that, for regular black holes with spherical symmetry and a single shape function, the analytical forms of the asymptotic frequency spectrum are not universal and do not depend on the multipole number but on the presence of complex singularities and the trajectory of asymptotic solutions along the Stokes lines.

2023, 47(2): 025104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/aca4bc

**Abstract:**

By analyzing the propagation of discontinuity in nonlinear electrodynamics, we numerically investigate the related black hole shadows of recently derived rotating black hole solutions in

2023, 47(2): 025105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/ac9fba

**Abstract:**

In this study, we investigate the effect of nonlinear electrodynamics on the shadows of charged, slowly rotating black holes with the presence of a cosmological constant. Rather than the null geodesic of the background black hole spacetime, the trajectory of a photon, as a perturbation of the nonlinear electrodynamic field, is governed by an effective metric. The latter can be derived by analyzing the propagation of a discontinuity of the electromagnetic waveform. Subsequently, the image of the black hole and its shadow can be evaluated using the backward ray-tracing technique. We explore the properties of the resultant black hole shadows of two different scenarios of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, the logarithmic and exponential forms. In particular, the effects of nonlinear electrodynamics on the optical image are investigated, as well as the image's dependence on other metric parameters, such as the black hole spin and charge. The resulting black hole image and shadow display rich features that potentially lead to observational implications.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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