## 2017 Vol. 41, No. 9

Display Method: |

2017, 41(9): 093001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093001

**Abstract:**

We describe a method for measuring the electromagnetic form factors of the m D

^{*}meson at time-like momentum transfer in e

^{+}e

^{-}annihilation. This is to study the joint angular distribution of the e

^{+}e

^{-}→

*γ*

^{*}→ D

^{*+}D

^{*-}, D

^{*+}→ D

^{0}π

^{+}, and D

^{*-}→ D

^{0}π

^{-}processes. The magnitudes and relative phases of the charge, magnetic and quadrupole form factors can be determined. The method can also be applied to other vector particles.

2017, 41(9): 093101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093101

**Abstract:**

A Gaussian wave function is used for detailed study of the mass spectra of the B and B

_{S}mesons using a Cornell potential incorporated with a

*O*(1/

*m*) correction in the potential energy term and expansion of the kinetic energy term up to

*O*(

**p**

^{10}) for relativistic correction of the Hamiltonian. The predicted excited states for the B and B

_{s}mesons are in very good agreement with results obtained by experiment. We assign B

_{2}(5747) and B

_{s2}(5840) as the 1

^{3}

*P*

_{2}state, B

_{1}(5721) and B

_{s1}(5830) as the 1

*P*

_{1}state, B

_{0}(5732) as the 1

^{3}

*P*

_{0}state, B

_{s1}(5850) as the 1

*P*'

_{1}state and B(5970) as the 2

^{3}

*S*

_{1}state. We investigate the Regge trajectories in the (

*J,M*

^{2}) and (

*n*

_{r},

*M*

^{2}) planes with their corresponding parameters. The branching ratios for leptonic and radiative-leptonic decays are estimated for the B and B

_{S}mesons. Our results are in good agreement with experimental observations as well as outcomes of other theoretical models.

2017, 41(9): 093102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093102

**Abstract:**

We discuss possible implications of exotic stringy instantons for baryon-violating signatures in future colliders. In particular, we discuss high-energy quark collisions and Λ-Λ transitions. In principle, the Λ-Λ process can be probed by high-luminosity electron-positron colliders. However, we find that an extremely high luminosity is needed in order to provide a (somewhat) stringent bound compared to the current data on m NN→ππ,KK. On the other hand, (exotic) instanton-induced six-quark interactions can be tested in near future high-energy colliders beyond LHC, at energies around 20-100 m TeV. The Super proton-proton Collider (SppC) would be capable of such measurement given the proposed energy level of 50-90 TeV. Comparison with other channels is made. In particular, we show the compatibility of our model with neutron-antineutron and m NN→ππ,KK bounds.

2017, 41(9): 093103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093103

**Abstract:**

Up to now, the excited charmed and bottom baryon states have still not been well studied experimentally or theoretically. In this paper, we predict the mass of Ω

_{b}

^{*}, the only

*L*=0 baryon state which has not been observed, to be 6069.2 MeV. The spectra of charmed and bottom baryons with the orbital angular momentum

*L*=1 are studied in two popular constituent quark models, the Goldstone boson exchange (GBE) model and the one gluon exchange (OGE) hyperfine interaction model. Inserting the latest experimental data from the "Review of Particle Physics", we find that in the GBE model, there exist some multiplets (∑

_{c(b)}, Ξ'

_{c(b)}and Ω

_{c(b)}) in which the total spin of the three quarks in their lowest energy states is 3/2, but in the OGE model there is no such phenomenon. This is the most important difference between the GBE and OGE models. These results can be tested in the near future. We suggest more efforts to study the excited charmed and bottom baryons both theoretically and experimentally, not only for the abundance of baryon spectra, but also for determining which hyperfine interaction model best describes nature.

2017, 41(9): 093104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093104

**Abstract:**

The democracy of quark flavors is a well-motivated flavor symmetry, but it must be properly broken in order to explain the observed quark mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. We reconstruct the texture of flavor democracy breaking and evaluate its strength in a novel way, by assuming a parallelism between the

*Q*=+2/3 and

*Q*=-1/3 quark sectors and using a nontrivial parametrization of the flavor mixing matrix. Some phenomenological implications of such democratic quark mass matrices, including their variations in the hierarchy basis and their evolution from the electroweak scale to a super-high energy scale, are also discussed.

2017, 41(9): 093105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093105

**Abstract:**

We obtain mass spectra of the light and heavy meson-antimeson (molecular states) sectors by using a nonrelativistic potential model with Coulomb and one pion exchange potential terms for meson-meson interaction. The digamma decay widths are also obtained for the light sector. We compare our results with available experimental and theoretical data.

2017, 41(9): 093106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093106

**Abstract:**

Physicists have been interested in quantization of spinor and vector free fields in 4-dimensional de Sitter space-time, in ambient space notation. The Gupta-Bleuler formalism has been extensively applied to the quantization of gauge invariant theories. The field equation of the massless spin-3/2 fields is gauge invariant in de Sitter space. In this paper, we study the quantization of massless spin-spin-3/2 gauge fields in de Sitter space-time by the Gupta-Bleuler formalism. This triplet carries an indecomposable representation of the de Sitter group.

2017, 41(9): 093107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093107

**Abstract:**

It is well recognized that looking for new physics at lower energy colliders is a path which is complementary to high energy machines such as the LHC. Using the large volume of data collected by BESⅢ, we may have a unique opportunity to tackle this. In this paper we calculate the branching ratios of the semi-leptonic processes D

_{s}

^{+}→ K

^{+}e

^{-}e

^{+}and D

_{s}

^{+}→K

^{+}e

^{-}μ

^{+}, and the leptonic processes D

^{0}→ e

^{-}e

^{+}and D

^{0}→ e

^{-}μ

^{+}, in the frameworks of the

*U*(1)' model, 2HDM and unparticle model. It is found that both the

*U*(1)' model and 2HDM may influence the semi-leptonic decay rates, but only the

*U*(1)' model offers substantial contributions to the pure leptonic decays, and the resultant branching ratio of D

^{0}→ e

^{-}μ

^{+}can be as large as 10

^{-7}~10

^{-8}. This might be observed at the future super τ-charm factory.

2017, 41(9): 093108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/093108

**Abstract:**

Photon motion in a Michelson interferometer is re-analyzed in terms of both geometrical optics and wave optics. The classical paths of the photons in the background of a gravitational wave are derived from the Fermat principle, which is the same as the null geodesics in general relativity. The deformed Maxwell equations and the wave equations of electric fields in the background of a gravitational wave are presented in a flat-space approximation. Both methods show that even the envelope of the response of an interferometer depends on the frequency of a gravitational wave, but it is almost independent of the frequency of the mirror's vibrations.

2017, 41(9): 094001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/094001

**Abstract:**

A method is proposed to determine the one-neutron

*S*

_{n}or two-neutron

*S*

_{2n}separation energy of neutron-rich isotopes. Relationships between

*S*

_{n}(

*S*

_{2n}) and isotopic cross sections have been deduced from an empirical formula, i.e., the cross section of an isotope exponentially depends on the average binding energy per nucleon

*B/A*. The proposed relationships have been verified using the neutron-rich copper isotopes measured in the 64A MeV

^{86}Kr +

^{9}Be reaction.

*S*

_{n},

*S*

_{2n}, and

*B/A*for the very neutron-rich

^{77, 78, 79}Cu isotopes are determined from the proposed correlations. It is also proposed that the correlations between

*S*

_{n},

*S*

_{2n}and isotopic cross sections can be used to find the location of neutron drip line isotopes.

2017, 41(9): 094101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/094101

**Abstract:**

Various estimates of the even-odd effect of the mass shell of atomic nuclei are considered. Based on the experimental mass values of the Ca, Sn, and Pb isotopes, the dependence of the energy gap on the neutron number is traced and the relationship of this characteristic to the properties of external neutron subshells is shown. In nuclei with closed proton shells, effects directly related to neutron pairing and effects of nucleon shells are discussed.

2017, 41(9): 094102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/094102

**Abstract:**

The rich phenomena of deformations in neutron-deficient krypton isotopes, such as shape evolution with neutron number and shape coexistence, have attracted the interest of nuclear physicists for decades. It is interesting to study such shape phenomena using a novel way, e.g. by thermally exciting the nucleus. In this work, we develop the finite temperature covariant density functional theory for axially deformed nuclei with the treatment of pairing correlations by the BCS approach, and apply this approach for the study of shape evolution in

^{72,74}Kr with increasing temperature. For

^{72}Kr, with temperature increasing, the nucleus firstly experiences a relatively quick weakening in oblate deformation at temperature

*T*~0.9 MeV, and then changes from oblate to spherical at

*T*~2.1 MeV. For

^{74}Kr, its global minimum is at quadrupole deformation

*β*

_{2}~-0.14 and abruptly changes to spherical at T~1.7 MeV. The proton pairing transition occurs at critical temperature 0.6 MeV following the rule

*T*

_{c}=0.6

*△*

_{p}(0), where

*△*

_{p}(0) is the proton pairing gap at zero temperature. The signatures of the above pairing transition and shape changes can be found in the specific heat curve. The single-particle level evolutions with temperature are presented.

2017, 41(9): 094103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/094103

**Abstract:**

Sources of event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are investigated in a multiphase parton transport model (AMPT). Besides the well-known initial eccentricity fluctuations, several other sources of elliptic flow dynamical fluctuations are identified. One is fluctuations in initial parton configurations at a given eccentricity. Configuration fluctuations are found to be as important as eccentricity fluctuations in elliptic flow development. A second is quantum fluctuations in parton-parton interactions during system evolution. A third is fluctuations caused by hadronization and final-state hadronic scatterings. The magnitudes of these fluctuations are investigated relative to the eccentricity fluctuations and the average elliptic flow magnitude. The fluctuations from the latter two sources are found to be negative. The results may have important implications for the interpretation of elliptic flow data.

2017, 41(9): 094104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/094104

**Abstract:**

We have calculated the in-medium magnetic moments of octet baryons in the presence of hot and dense symmetric nuclear matter. Effective magnetic moments of baryons have been derived from medium modified quark masses within the chiral

*SU*(3) quark mean field model. Further, for better insight into the medium modification of baryonic magnetic moments, we have considered the explicit contributions from the valence quarks, sea quarks and the sea orbital angular momentum of sea quarks. These effects have been successful in giving the description of baryonic magnetic moments in vacuum. The magnetic moments of baryons are found to vary significantly as a function of density of nuclear medium.

2017, 41(9): 094105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/094105

**Abstract:**

The previously derived Lane consistent dispersive coupled-channel optical model for nucleon scattering on

^{232}Th and

^{238}U nuclei is extended to describe scattering on even-even actinides with

*Z*=90-98. A soft-rotator-model (SRM) description of the low-lying nuclear structure is used, where the SRM Hamiltonian parameters are adjusted to the observed collective levels of the target nucleus. SRM nuclear wave functions (mixed in

*K*quantum number) have been used to calculate the coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model. The "effective" deformations that define inter-band couplings are derived from the SRM Hamiltonian parameters. Conservation of nuclear volume is enforced by introducing a dynamic monopolar term to the deformed potential, leading to additional couplings between rotational bands. The fitted static deformation parameters are in very good agreement with those derived by Wang and collaborators using the Weizsäcker-Skyrme global mass model (WS4), allowing use of the latter to predict cross sections for nuclei without experimental data. A good description of the scarce " optical" experimental database is achieved. SRM couplings and volume conservation allow a precise calculation of the compound-nucleus formation cross sections, which is significantly different from that calculated with rigid-rotor potentials coupling the ground-state rotational band. The derived parameters can be used to describe both neutron-and proton-induced reactions.

2017, 41(9): 095101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/095101

**Abstract:**

The death of massive stars due to supernova explosions is a key ingredient in stellar evolution and stellar population synthesis. Electron capture (EC) plays a vital role in supernova explosions. Using the Shell-Model Monte Carlo method, based on the nuclear random phase approximation and linear response theory model for electrons, we study the strong screening EC rates of

^{52, 53, 59, 60}Fe in pre-supernovae. The results show that the screening rates can decrease by about 18.66%. Our results may become a good foundation for future investigation of the evolution of late-type stars, supernova explosion mechanisms and numerical simulations.

2017, 41(9): 095102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/095102

**Abstract:**

Massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational field produced by a Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole in

*f*(

*R*) gravity. The exact solution of the radial part of the Klein-Gordon equation in this background is obtained and is given in terms of the general Heun functions. We apply the properties of the general Heun functions to study the Hawking radiation and the resonant frequencies of scalar particles.

2017, 41(9): 097001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/097001

**Abstract:**

Compared with conventional accelerators, laser plasma accelerators can generate high energy ions at a greatly reduced scale, due to their TV/m acceleration gradient. A compact laser plasma accelerator (CLAPA) has been built at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics at Peking University. It will be used for applied research like biological irradiation, astrophysics simulations, etc. A beamline system with multiple quadrupoles and an analyzing magnet for laser-accelerated ions is proposed here. Since laser-accelerated ion beams have broad energy spectra and large angular divergence, the parameters (beam waist position in the

*Y*direction, beam line layout, drift distance, magnet angles etc.) of the beamline system are carefully designed and optimised to obtain a radially symmetric proton distribution at the irradiation platform. Requirements of energy selection and differences in focusing or defocusing in application systems greatly influence the evolution of proton distributions. With optimal parameters, radially symmetric proton distributions can be achieved and protons with different energy spread within ±5% have similar transverse areas at the experiment target.

2017, 41(9): 098201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/9/098201

**Abstract:**

The three-dimensional (3D) spot-scanning method is one of the most commonly used irradiation methods in charged particle beam radiotherapy. Generally, spot-scanning beam delivery utilizes the same size pencil beam to irradiate the tumor targets. Here we propose a spot-scanning beam delivery method with laterally-and longitudinally-mixed size pencil beams for heavy ion radiotherapy. This uses pencil beams with a bigger spot size in the lateral direction and wider mini spread-out Bragg peak (mini-SOBP) to irradiate the inner part of a target volume, and pencil beams with a smaller spot size in the lateral direction and narrower mini-SOBP to irradiate the peripheral part of the target volume. Instead of being controlled by the accelerator, the lateral size of the pencil beam was adjusted by inserting Ta scatterers in the beam delivery line. The longitudinal size of the pencil beam (i.e. the width of the mini-SOBP) was adjusted by tilting mini ridge filters along the beam direction. The new spot-scanning beam delivery using carbon ions was investigated theoretically and compared with traditional spot-scanning beam delivery. Our results show that the new spot-scanning beam delivery has smaller lateral penumbra, steeper distal dose fall-off and the dose homogeneity (1-standard deviation/mean) in the target volume is better than 95%.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

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