Spot-scanning beam delivery with laterally-and longitudinally-mixed spot size pencil beams in heavy ion radiotherapy
- Received Date: 2016-08-10
- Accepted Date: 2017-04-23
- Available Online: 2017-09-05
Abstract: The three-dimensional (3D) spot-scanning method is one of the most commonly used irradiation methods in charged particle beam radiotherapy. Generally, spot-scanning beam delivery utilizes the same size pencil beam to irradiate the tumor targets. Here we propose a spot-scanning beam delivery method with laterally-and longitudinally-mixed size pencil beams for heavy ion radiotherapy. This uses pencil beams with a bigger spot size in the lateral direction and wider mini spread-out Bragg peak (mini-SOBP) to irradiate the inner part of a target volume, and pencil beams with a smaller spot size in the lateral direction and narrower mini-SOBP to irradiate the peripheral part of the target volume. Instead of being controlled by the accelerator, the lateral size of the pencil beam was adjusted by inserting Ta scatterers in the beam delivery line. The longitudinal size of the pencil beam (i.e. the width of the mini-SOBP) was adjusted by tilting mini ridge filters along the beam direction. The new spot-scanning beam delivery using carbon ions was investigated theoretically and compared with traditional spot-scanning beam delivery. Our results show that the new spot-scanning beam delivery has smaller lateral penumbra, steeper distal dose fall-off and the dose homogeneity (1-standard deviation/mean) in the target volume is better than 95%.