2014 Vol. 38, No. 4

Evidence for resonant structures in e+e-→π+π-hc
YUAN Chang-Zheng
2014, 38(4): 043001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/043001
The cross sections of e+e-→π+π-hc at center-of-mass energies from 3.90 to 4.42 GeV were measured by the BESⅢ and the CLEO-c experiments. Resonant structures are evident in the e+e-→π+π-hc line shape. The fit to the line shape results in a narrow structure at a mass of (4216±18)MeV/c2 and a width of (39±32)MeV, and a possible wide structure of mass (4293±9)MeV/c2 and width (222±67)MeV. Here, the errors are combined statistical and systematic errors. This may indicate that the Y(4260) state observed in e+e-→π+π-J/ψ has a fine structure in it.
O(αsv2) correction to J/ψ plus ηc production in e+e- annihilation at s=10.6 Gev
LI Xi-Huai, WANG Jian-Xiong
2014, 38(4): 043101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/043101
Based on the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach, O(αsv2) corrections to J/ψ plus ηc production in m e+e- annihilation at √s=10.6 ≥v are calculated in this work. The numerical results show that the correction at αsv2 order is only about a few percent of the total theoretical result. This indicates that the perturbative expansions become convergent and that a higher order correction will be smaller. The uncertainties from the long-distance matrix elements, renormalization scale and the measurement in the experiment are also discussed. Our result is in agreement with the previous result by Jia.
Evaluation of the 1077 keV γ-ray emission probability from 68Ga decay
HUANG Xiao-Long, JIANG Li-Yang, CHEN Xiong-Jun, CHEN Guo-Chang
2014, 38(4): 044001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/044001
68Ga decays to the excited states of 68Zn through the electron capture decay mode. New recommended values for the emission probability of 1077 keV γ-ray given by the ENSDF and DDEP databases all use data from absolute measurements. In 2011, JIANG Li-Yang deduced a new value for 1077 keV γ-ray emission probability by measuring the 69Ga(n,2n) 68Ga reaction cross section. The new value is about 20% lower than values obtained from previous absolute measurements and evaluations. In this paper, the discrepancies among the measurements and evaluations are analyzed carefully and the new values are re-recommended. Our recommended value for the emission probability of 1077 keV γ-ray is (2.72± 0.16)%.
Effect of nuclear deformation on direct capture reactions
FAN Guang-Wei, CAI Xiao-Lu, HAN Ti-Fei, LI Xue-Chao, REN Zhong-Zhou, XU Wang
2014, 38(4): 044101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/044101
Direct radiative capture processes are well described by a spherical potential model. Since most nuclei are not spherical, and in order for the model to explain direct radiative captures more accurately, the effect of nuclear deformation has been analyzed with q-deformed Woods-Saxon potential in this work. The results imply that nuclear deformation largely affects the direct radiative capture, and it should be taken into account when discussing direct capture reactions.
Source function extracted from single-event HBT correlation functions of hydrodynamical sources
HU Ying, FENG Ke-Xin, ZHANG Wei-Ning
2014, 38(4): 044102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/044102
We investigate the single-event two-pion correlation functions for the hydrodynamic particle-emitting sources with the fluctuating initial conditions generated by the Heavy Ion Jet Interaction Generator (HIJING). Using a three-dimension fast Fourier transform (FFT), we further extract the source functions from the single-event correlation functions. It is found that the inhomogeneity of the hydrodynamic sources with the fluctuating initial conditions lead to event-by-event fluctuations of the correlation functions and source functions.
particle and nuclear astrophysics and cosmology
Energy spectrum of cosmic protons and helium nuclei by ahybrid measurement at 4300 m a.s.l.
B. Bartoli, P. Bernardini, X. J. Bi et al
2014, 38(4): 045001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/045001
The energy spectrum of cosmic Hydrogen and Helium nuclei has been measured below the so-called "knee" by using a hybrid experiment with a wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope and the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) array of the ARGO-YBJ experiment at 4300 m above sea level. The Hydrogen and Helium nuclei have been well separated from other cosmic ray components by using a multi-parameter technique. A highly uniform energy resolution of about 25% is achieved throughout the whole energy range (100-700 TeV). The observed energy spectrum is compatible with a single power law with index γ=-2.63±0.06.
Have we found conclusive evidence for dark matter through direct detection experiments?
2014, 38(4): 045101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/045101
A WIMP-model-independent method is used to examine the existing evidence for low mass dark matter. Using XENON100's recent result of 224.6 live days × 34 kg exposure and PICASSO's result that was published in 2012, we have obtained constraints on the couplings |an| < 0.4 and |ap| < 0.3, corresponding to spin-dependent cross-sections of σn < 2.5 × 10-38 cm2 and σp < 1.4 × 10-38cm2 for a WIMP mass of 10 GeV/c2. It is shown that the spin-independent isospin-violating dark matter model also fails to reconcile the recent result from XENON100 with the positive results from DAMA, CoGeNT and CDMS-Ⅱ.
Quantized space-time and its influence on two physical problems
MA Meng-Sen, ZHAO Hui-Hua
2014, 38(4): 045102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/045102
Based on Snyder's idea of quantized space-time, we derive a new generalized uncertainty principle and new modified density of states. Accordingly, we discuss the influence of the modified generalized uncertainty principle on the black hole entropy and the influence of the modified density of states on the Stefan-Boltzman law.
Detection Technology , Electronics and Methods
Investigation of GEM-Micromegas detector on X-ray beam of synchrotron radiation
ZHANG Yu-Lian, QI Hui-Rong, HU Bi-Tao, FAN Sheng-Nan, WANG Bo, LIU Mei, ZHANG Jian, LIU Rong-Guang, CHANG Guang-Cai, LIU Peng, OUYANG Qun, CHEN Yuan-Bo, YI Fu-Ting
2014, 38(4): 046001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/046001
To reduce the discharge of the standard bulk Micromegas and GEM detectors, a GEM-Micromegas detector was developed at the Institute of High Energy Physics. Taking into account the advantages of the two detectors, one GEM foil was set as a preamplifier on the mesh of Micromegas in the structure and the GEM preamplification decreased the working voltage of Micromegas to significantly reduce the effect of the discharge. At the same gain, the spark probability of the GEM-Micromegas detector can be reduced to a factor 0.01 compared to the standard Micromegas detector, and an even higher gain could be obtained. This paper describes the performance of the X-ray beam detector that was studied at 1W2B Laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Finally, the result of the energy resolution under various X-ray energies was given in different working gases. This indicates that the GEM-Micromegas detector has an energy response capability in an energy range from 6 keV to 20 keV and it could work better than the standard bulk-Micromegas.
Induced charge signal of a glass RPC detector
2014, 38(4): 046002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/046002
A gas detector glass resistivity plate chamber (GRPC) is proposed for use in the hadron calorimeter (HCAL). The read-out system is based on a semi-digital system and, therefore, the charge information from GRPC is needed. To better understand the charge that comes out from the GRPC, we started from a cosmic ray test to get the charge distribution. We then studied the induced charge distribution on the collection pad. After successfully comparing it with the prototype beam test data at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research), the process was finally implanted into the Geant4 based simulation for future study.
A position resolution MRPC for muon tomography
FAN Xing-Ming, WANG Yi, WANG Xue-Wu, ZENG Zhi, ZENG Ming, ZHAO Zi-Ran, CHENG Jian-Ping
2014, 38(4): 046003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/046003
Muon tomography is a promising method in the detection and imaging of high Z material. In general, considering the quality of track reconstruction in imaging, a detector of good position resolution, high efficiency and large area is required. This paper presents the design and study of a prototype of position sensitive MRPC with 0.15 mm narrow gas gap and 2.54 mm strip readout. Through a cosmic-ray experiment, the performance of MRPC module is carefully observed and each channel is calibrated. Through an X ray experiment with a narrow slit, the position resolution is studied. The results show that the time resolution of the module can reach 61ps and the spatial resolution can reach 0.36 mm.
Prototype of time digitizing system for BESⅢ endcap TOF upgrade
CAO Ping, SUN Wei-Jia, JI Xiao-Lu, FAN Huan-Huan, WANG Si-Yu, LIU Shu-Bin, AN Qi
2014, 38(4): 046101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/046101
The prototype of a time digitizing system for the BESⅢ endcap TOF (ETOF) upgrade is introduced in this paper. The ETOF readout electronics has a distributed architecture. Hit signals from the multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) are signaled as LVDS by front-end electronics (FEE) and are then sent to the back-end time digitizing system via long shield differential twisted pair cables. The ETOF digitizing system consists of two VME crates, each of which contains modules for time digitization, clock, trigger, fast control, etc. The time digitizing module (TDIG) of this prototype can support up to 72 electrical channels for hit information measurement. The fast control (FCTL) module can operate in barrel or endcap mode. The barrel FCTL fans out fast control signals from the trigger system to the endcap FCTLs, merges data from the endcaps and then transfers to the trigger system. Without modifying the barrel TOF (BTOF) structure, this time digitizing architecture benefits from improved ETOF performance without degrading the BTOF performance. Lab experiments show that the time resolution of this digitizing system can be lower than 20 ps, and the data throughput to the DAQ can be about 92 Mbps. Beam experiments show that the total time resolution can be lower than 45 ps.
Study of linearity for a high dynamic range calorimeter
XIANG Tian, JIN Xi, DONG Jia-Ning, ZHANG Yun-Long, XU Zi-Zong, LIU Shu-Bin, An Qi
2014, 38(4): 046201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/046201
A high dynamic range calorimeter has been designed for the DArk Matter Particles Explore (DAMPE) satellite. It consists of 308 BGO crystals, multi-dynode readout PMTs and front end electronics system. We have built on previous research to show that BGO fluorescence should not be saturated by high electron energy density under DAMPE's energy range. A BGO fluorescence simulator is set up to calibrate the energy range of the dynodes, while a cosmic-ray unit is used to calibrate 1 MIP with the ADC count in dynode 8. Linearity is achieved for the dynamic range from 0.5 MIPs to 1.26×105 MIPs. The requirements of DAMPE can thus be satisfied.
Automatic calibration method of voxel size for cone-beam 3D-CT scanning system
YANG Min, WANG Xiao-Long, LIU Yi-Peng, MENG Fan-Yong, LI Xing-Dong, LIU Wen-Li, WEI Dong-Bo
2014, 38(4): 046202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/046202
For a cone-beam three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scanning system, voxel size is an important indicator to guarantee the accuracy of data analysis and feature measurement based on 3D-CT images. Meanwhile, the voxel size changes with the movement of the rotary stage along X-ray direction. In order to realize the automatic calibration of the voxel size, a new and easily-implemented method is proposed. According to this method, several projections of a spherical phantom are captured at different imaging positions and the corresponding voxel size values are calculated by non-linear least-square fitting. Through these interpolation values, a linear equation is obtained that reflects the relationship between the voxel size and the rotary stage translation distance from its nominal zero position. Finally, the linear equation is imported into the calibration module of the 3D-CT scanning system. When the rotary stage is moving along X-ray direction, the accurate value of the voxel size is dynamically exported. The experimental results prove that this method meets the requirements of the actual CT scanning system, and has virtues of easy implementation and high accuracy.
Implementation of the direct demodulation method for natural gamma ray spectral logging
LIU Zun-Nian, SUN Jian-Meng, WANG Jin-Liang, REN Ai-Ge
2014, 38(4): 046203. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/046203
Spectrum analysis of natural gamma ray spectral logging (SGR) data is a critical part of surface information processing systems. Due to the low resolution, which is an inherent weakness of SGR, and the low signal-to-noise ratio problem of logging measurements, SGR is usually treated with a low confidence level. The Direct Demodulation (DD) method is an advanced technique to solve modulation equations interactively under physical constraints. It has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution than the traditional methods and can effectively suppress the logging noise. Based on standard count rate spectral data obtained from the China Offshore Oil Logging Company SGR Calibration Facility, this paper presents the application of the DD method to gamma-ray logging. The results are compared with four traditional algorithmic methods, showing that the DD method is a credible choice, with higher sensitivity and higher spatial resolution in gamma-ray log interpretation. The Point-Spread-Function of the Shengli Oil Logging Company's natural gamma ray spectroscopy instrument is obtained for the first time. The quantities of various radionuclides in their calibration pits are also obtained. The DD method was applied successfully to gamma-ray logging, offering a new option for SGR logging algorithm selection.
Beam transport design for a 1 MeV prototype dielectric wall accelerator
ZHU Jun, ZHANG Huang, PENG Shi-Xiang, REN Hai-Tao, XIA Lian-Sheng, WANG Wen-Dou, YANG Zhi-Yong, SHEN Yi, SHI Jin-Shui, ZHANG Lin-Wen, DENG Jian-Jun
2014, 38(4): 047001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/047001
The beam transport design of a novel proton dielectric wall accelerator is introduced in this paper. The protons will be accelerated from 40 keV to nearly 1 MeV under an accelerating gradient that is as high as 20 MV/m. A consideration of the beam line as well as the transport simulation is presented. The influences of the injection timing jitter and the accelerating pulse timing jitter are also discussed.
SHER-HIAF ring lattice design
GAO Xiang, YANG Jian-Cheng, XIA Jia-Wen, CHAI Wei-Ping, SHI Jian, SHEN Guo-Dong
2014, 38(4): 047002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/047002
The Super Heavy Experimental Ring (SHER), which is one of the rings of the next accelerator complex High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) at IMP, has to be optimized for e-cooling. Its lattice is designed for two modes: the first is the isochronous mode, which is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for short-lived secondary nuclei, the second is the storage ring mode, which is used for collecting and cooling the secondary rare isotope beams from the transport line. In order to fulfil its purpose, the ion optics can be set to different ion optical modes.
Compact narrow-band THz radiation source based on photocathode rf gun
LI Wei-Wei, HE Zhi-Gang, JIA Qi-Ka
2014, 38(4): 047003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/047003
Narrow-band THz coherent Cherenkov radiation can be driven by a subpicosecond electron bunch traveling along the axis of a hollow cylindrical dielectric-lined waveguide. We present a scheme of compact THz radiation source based on the photocathode rf gun. On the basis of our analytic result, the subpicosecond electron bunch with high charge (800 pC) can be generated directly in the photocathode rf gun. According to the analytical and simulated results, a narrow emission spectrum peaked at 0.24 THz with 2 megawatt (MW) peak power is expected to gain in the proposed scheme (the length of the facility is about 1.2 m).
Design of an electron gun for terahertz radiation source
LI Ji, PEI Yuan-Ji, HU Tong-Ning, CHEN Qu-Shan, FENG Guang-Yao, SHANG Lei, LI Cheng-Long
2014, 38(4): 047004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/047004
An EC-ITC (External-Cathode Independently Tunable Cells) RF gun was employed with the aim of obtaining short-pulse bunches with high peak current for a terahertz radiation source. A gridded DC gun plays a key role as the external injecting electron source of the ITC RF gun, the performance of which determines the beam quality in the injector and transport line. In order to make the beam well compressed in the ITC RF gun, the energy of the electrons acquired from the gridded DC gun should be 15 keV at most. A proper structure of the gridded gun with double-anode is shown to overcome the strong space- charge force on the cathode, which is able to generate 6 μs beam with 4.5 A current successfully.
Progress on the construction of the 100 MeV/100 kW electron linac for the NSC KIPT neutron source
CHI Yun-Long, PEI Shi-Lun, PEI Guo-Xi et al, (CDEX collaboration) and (TEXONO collaboration)
2014, 38(4): 047005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/047005
IHEP, China is constructing a 100 MeV/100 kW electron Linac for NSC KIPT, Ukraine. This linac will be used as the driver of a neutron source based on a subcritical assembly. In 2012, the injector part of the accelerator was pre-installed as a testing facility in the experimental hall ≠2 of IHEP. The injector beam and key hardware testing results met the design goal. Recently, the injector testing facility was disassembled and all of the components for the whole accelerator have been shipped to Ukraine from China by the ocean shipping. The installation of the whole machine in KIPT will be started in June, 2013. The construction progress, the design and testing results of the injector beam and key hardware are presented.
Conceptional design of the laser ion source based hadrontherapy facility
XIE Xiu-Cui, SONG Ming-Tao, ZHANG Xiao-Hu
2014, 38(4): 047006. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/047006
A laser ion source (LIS), which can provide a carbon beam with highly stripped state (C6+) and high intensity (several tens mA), would significantly change the overall design of the hadrontherapy facility. The proposed LIS based hadrontherapy facility has the advantages of short linac length, simple injection scheme, and small synchrotron size. With the experience from the DPIS and HITFiL projects that have been conducted in IMP, a conceptional design of the LIS based hadrontherapy facility will be presented, with special attention given to APF type IH DTL design and simulation.
Synchrotron radiation,applications of nuclear techniquees,etc
Evaluation of imaging protocol for ECT based on CS image reconstruction algorithm
ZHOU Xiao-Lin, YUN Ming-Kai, CAO Xue-Xiang, LIU Shuang-Quan, WANG Lu, HUANG Xian-Chao, WEI Long
2014, 38(4): 048201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/4/048201
Single-photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography are essential medical imaging tools, for which the sampling angle number and scan time should be carefully chosen to give a good compromise between image quality and radiopharmaceutical dose. In this study, the image quality of different acquisition protocols was evaluated via varied angle number and count number per angle with Monte Carlo simulation data. It was shown that, when similar imaging counts were used, the factor of acquisition counts was more important than that of the sampling number in emission computerized tomography. To further reduce the activity requirement and the scan duration, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm for limited-view and low-dose tomography based on compressed sensing theory has been developed. The total variation regulation was added to the reconstruction process to improve the signal to noise Ratio and reduce artifacts caused by the limited angle sampling. Maximization of the maximum likelihood of the estimated image and the measured data and minimization of the total variation of the image are alternatively implemented. By using this advanced algorithm, the reconstruction process is able to achieve image quality matching or exceed that of normal scans with only half of the injection radiopharmaceutical dose.