2014 Vol. 38, No. 10
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In contrast with B0- 0, Bs- s mixing where the standard model (SM) contributions overwhelm that of the new physics beyond standard model (BSM), a measured relatively large D0- 0 mixing where the SM contribution is negligible, definitely implies the existence of the new physics BSM. It is natural to consider that the rare decays of D meson might be more sensitive to new physics, and the decay mode D0→μ+μ- could be an ideal area to search for new physics because it is a flavor changing process. In this work we look for a trace of the new physics BSM in the leptonic decays of D0. Concretely we discuss the contributions of unparticle or an extra gauge boson Z' while imposing the constraints set by fitting the D0- 0 mixing data. We find that the long-distance SM effects for D0→l still exceed those contributions of the BSM under consideration, but for a double-flavor changing process such as D0→μ±e , the new physics contribution would be significant.
We present a new model of quantum phase transitions in matrix product systems of one-dimensional spin-1 chains and study the phases coexistence phenomenon. We find that in the thermodynamic limit the proposed system has three different quantum phases and by adjusting the control parameters we are able to realize any phase, any two phases equal coexistence and the three phases equal coexistence. At every critical point the physical quantities including the entanglement are not discontinuous and the matrix product system has long-range correlation and N-spin maximal entanglement. We believe that our work is helpful for having a comprehensive understanding of quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin chains and of certain directive significance to the preparation and control of one-dimensional spin lattice models with stable coherence and N-spin maximal entanglement.
The neutron induced reactions on 23Na are investigated by using the Talys1.4 program. The calculated results for the 23Na(n, 2n)22Na reaction are found to agree with the experimental results. The cross sections of the residues of the (n, n), (n, γ), (n, p), and (n, np) channels in the reactions are presented, and at the same time, the neutron induced reactions on 22Ne are also investigated.
The interacting boson model with isospin (IBM-3) has been used to study mixed symmetry states and electromagnetic transitions at low-lying states for a 28Si nucleus. The theoretical calculations show that the 24+ state is the lowest mixed symmetry state in 28Si and the 43+ state is also a mixed symmetry state.
It is pointed out that the finite-size effect is not negligible in locating the critical point of quantum colordynamics (QCD) phase transitions at current relativistic heavy ion collisions. The finite-size scaling form of the critical related observable is suggested. Its fixed point behavior at critical incident energy can be served as a reliable identification of a critical point and nearby boundary of QCD phase transition. How to experimentally find the fixed point behavior is demonstrated by using 3D-Ising model as an example. The validity of the method at finite detector acceptances at RHIC is also discussed.
The stability condition of the Landau Fermi liquid theory may be broken when the interaction between particles is strong enough. In this case, the ground state is reconstructed to have a particle distribution different from the Fermi-step function. For specific instances, one case with the vector boson exchange and another with the relativistic heavy-ion collision are taken into consideration. With the vector boson exchange, we find that the relative weak interaction strength can lead to the ground-state rearrangement as long as the fermion mass is large enough. It is found that the relativistic heavy-ion collision may also cause the ground-state rearrangement, affecting the statistics of the collision system.
Position-sensitive thin-gap gas detectors have been developed in the laboratory, based on the ATLAS Thin Gap Chamber. The signal collection structure has been redesigned while retaining other configurations to keep the good time performance of the detector. The position resolution was measured using cosmic muons for two versions of the detector and found to be 409 μm and 233 μm respectively. This paper presents the structure of these two detector prototypes, with the position resolution measurement method and results.
A multi-channel front-end ASIC has been developed for a fast neutron spectrometer based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM)-Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Charge Amplifier and Shaping Amplifier for GEM (CASAGEM) integrates 16+1 channels: 16 channels for anodes and 1 channel for cathode. The gain and the shaping time are adjustable from 2 to 40 mV/fC and from 20 to 80 ns, respectively. The prototype ASIC is fabricated in 0.35 μ CMOS process. An evaluation Print Circuit Board (PCB) was also developed for chip tests. In total 20 chips have been tested. The integrated nonlinearity is less than 1%. The equivalent noise electrons is less than 2000e when the input capacitor is 50 pF. The time jitter is less than 1 ns. The design and the test results are presented in the paper.
A plastic scintillation detector was used to measure the yield of deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutrons or deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. Collisions of fast neutrons with hydrogen nucleus in a scintillator generated recoil protons, the energies of which were fully deposited in the scintillator. The statistical fluctuation of the protons' number and that of the protons' total energy were two sources of measurement uncertainty. Based on DT neutrons, this paper represents the algorithms of computing the probability density functions of the two sources. Uncertainties of the measurement induced by statistical fluctuations were finally computed by constructing the probability density functions of the proton number and that of the neutron number.
Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) has been widely applied in many fields, especially when imaging low-Z samples or when the difference in the attenuation coefficient between different regions in the sample is too small to be detected. Recent developments of this technique have presented a need for a new software package for data analysis. Here, the Diffraction Enhanced Image Reconstructor (DEIReconstructor), developed in Matlab, is presented. DEIReconstructor has a user-friendly graphical user interface and runs under any of the 32-bit or 64-bit Microsoft Windows operating systems including XP and Win7. Many of its features are integrated to support imaging preprocessing, extract absorption, refractive and scattering information of diffraction enhanced imaging and allow for parallel-beam tomography reconstruction for DEI-CT. Furthermore, many other useful functions are also implemented in order to simplify the data analysis and the presentation of results. The compiled software package is freely available.
The beam energy is measured in the e+e- collision by using Compton backscattering. The uncertainty of this measurement process is studied by virtue of analytical formulas, and the special effects of variant energy spread and energy drift on the systematic uncertainty estimation are also studied with the Monte Carlo sampling technique. These quantitative conclusions are especially important for understanding the uncertainty of the beam energy measurement system.
The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an effective method for the determination of the half-life of long-lived radionuclides. In this paper, we report a method for measurement of the half-life of 79Se. The number of 79Se atoms was determined from measured 79Se/Se absolute ratios with the AMS system at the China Institute of Atomic Energy and the decay rate of 79Se was determined by counting the emitted β-rays with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The major improvements of our measurements include using the high abundance of an 79Se sample which was cooled for many years to exclude the interference of short-lived nuclides, the extraction of SeO2- molecular ions, that results in a suppression of the 79Br background by as much as about five orders of magnitude. Also, an AMS measurement of the absolute ratio of 79Se/Se was developed to avoid systematic errors. The results show that 79Se/Se is (2.35±0.12)×10-7 in the reference sample and the radioactivity of 79Se is (1.24±0.05) Bq/g, so the half-life of 79Se is (2.78±0.18)×105 a.
An Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has been launched in China for nuclear waste transmutation. For the application of high intensity proton beam acceleration, the quadrupole asymmetry effect needs to be carefully evaluated for cavities. Single spoke cavities are the main accelerating structures in the low energy front-end. The single spoke cavity has small transverse electromagnetic field asymmetry, which may lead to transverse RF defocusing asymmetry and beam envelope asymmetry. A superconducting single spoke resonator (PKU-2 Spoke) of β =0.12 and f=325 MHz with a racetrack-shaped inner conductor has been designed at Peking university. The study of its RF field quadrupole asymmetry and its effect on transverse momentum change has been performed. The quadrupole asymmetry study has also been performed on a β =0.12 and f=325 MHz ring-shaped single spoke cavity. Our results show that the quadrupole asymmetry is very small for both the racetrack-shaped and the ring-shaped single spoke cavity.
A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of the main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ions with a maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and an injection kinetic energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm; the pulsed beam intensity is 3 emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector, the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48 MHz 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates the ion beam from 4 keV/u to 300 keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with a 3.07 long vane. The phase advance has been taken into account in the analysis of the error tolerance, and parametric resonances have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur Interdigital H-mode Drift Tube Linacs (KONUS IH-DTLs), which follow the RFQ, accelerate ions up to the energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm. The resonance frequency is 108.48 MHz for the first two cavities and 216.96 MHz for the last 5 Drift Tube Linacs (DTLs). The maximum accelerating gradient can reach 4.95 MV/m in a DTL section with the length of 17.066 m, and the total pulsed RF power is 2.8 MW. A new strategy, for the determination of resonance frequency, RFQ vane voltage and DTL effective accelerating voltage, is described in detail. The beam dynamics design of the linac will be presented in this paper.
The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and γ-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide range of single-bunch current. Simulations and electron beam based tests are performed. The results show that the Duke storage ring BPM system is capable of providing precise orbit measurements to ensure highly stable FEL and HIGS operations.
A superconducting magnet prototype for Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System Injection-Ⅰ had been designed and fabricated, and tested in a new made vertical Dewar in November 2012. Batch magnet production was processed after some major revision from the magnet prototype, they include: removing off the perm-alloy shield, extending the iron yoke, using thin superconducting wire, etc. The first one of the batch magnets was tested in the vertical Dewar at the Harbin Institute of Technologyin in September 2013. A field measurement was carried out at the same time by the measurement platform that was seated on the top of the vertical Dewar，the measurement results met the design requirements. This paper will present the field measurement system design, measurement results and discussion on the residual field from the persistent current effect.
A 162.5 MHz, 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadruples (RFQ) structure is being designed for the Injector Scheme Ⅱ of the China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (C-ADS) linac. The RFQ will operate in continuous wave (CW) mode as required. For the CW normal conducting machine, the heat management will be one of the most important issues, since the temperature fluctuation may cause cavity deformation and lead to the resonant frequency shift. Therefore a detailed multi-physics analysis is necessary to ensure that the cavity can stably work at the required power level. The multi-physics analysis process includes RF electromagnetic analysis, thermal analysis, mechanical analysis, and this process will be iterated for several cycles until a satisfactory solution can be found. As one of the widely accepted measures, the cooling water system is used for frequency fine tunning, so the tunning capability of the cooling water system is also studied under different conditions. The results indicate that with the cooling water system, both the temperature rise and the frequency shift can be controlled at an acceptable level.
For the purpose of producing high intensity, multiply charged metal ion beams, the dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ions (DUHOCAMIS) was derived from the hot cathode Penning ion source combined with the hollow cathode sputtering experiments in 2007. To investigate the behavior of this discharge geometry in a stronger magnetic bottle-shaped field, a new test bench for DUHOCAMIS with a high magnetic bottle-shaped field up to 0.6 T has been set up at the Peking University. The experiments with magnetic fields from 0.13 T to 0.52 T have indicated that the discharge behavior is very sensitive to the magnetic flux densities. The slope of discharge curves in a very wide range can be controlled by changing the magnetic field as well as regulated by adjusting the cathode heating power; the production of metallic ions would be much greater than gas ions with the increased magnetic flux density; and the magnetic field has a much higher influence on the DHCD mode than on the PIG mode.
The Intensity Heavy Ion Superconducting Linear Accelerator as the injector of the High Intensity Heavy-Ion Accelerator Facility, which is a new project proposed in China has been designed. One of the design options in the low energy part is based on Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs). However, because of the unsymmetrical geometry of the cavity, there are dipole fields near the beam hole, which may steer the beam vertically, thus leading to emittance growth and beam loss. The effect of the dipole mode field is analyzed, and a method to overcome the beam steering effect by placing QWRs with opposite orientation is proposed in this paper. The simulation results show that the beam steering effect is reduced effectively by this method, and the deviation of the beam centroid is decreased from 2.87 mm to 0.1 mm. The emittance growth is also smaller.
The development of irradiation processing industry brings about various types of irradiation objects and expands the irradiation requirements for better uniformity and larger areas. This paper proposes an innovative design of a permanent magnet electron beam spread system. By clarifying its operation principles, the author verifies the feasibility of its application in irradiation accelerators for industrial use with the examples of its application in electron accelerators with energy ranging from 300 keV to 1 MeV. Based on the finite element analyses of electromagnetic fields and the charged particle dynamics, the author also conducts a simulation of electron dynamics in magnetic field on a computer. The results indicate that compared with the traditional electron beam scanning system, this system boosts the advantages of a larger spread area, non-power supply, simple structure and low cost, etc., which means it is not only suitable for the irradiation of objects with the shape of tubes, strips and panels, but can also achieve a desirable irradiation performance on irregular constructed objects of large size.
The high radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) scans increases the lifetime risk of cancer, which becomes a major clinical concern. The backprojection-filtration (BPF) algorithm could reduce the radiation dose by reconstructing the images from truncated data in a short scan. In a dental CT, it could reduce the radiation dose for the teeth by using the projection acquired in a short scan, and could avoid irradiation to the other part by using truncated projection. However, the limit of integration for backprojection varies per PI-line, resulting in low calculation efficiency and poor parallel performance. Recently, a tent BPF has been proposed to improve the calculation efficiency by rearranging the projection. However, the memory-consuming data rebinning process is included. Accordingly, the selective BPF (S-BPF) algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, the derivative of the projection is backprojected to the points whose x coordinate is less than that of the source focal spot to obtain the differentiated backprojection. The finite Hilbert inverse is then applied to each PI-line segment. S-BPF avoids the influence of the variable limit of integration by selective backprojection without additional time cost or memory cost. The simulation experiment and the real experiment demonstrated the higher reconstruction efficiency of S-BPF.
The use of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides，such as 40K, 238U, 232Th and their progeny, could lead to external exposures to the residents of such buildings. In this paper, a set of models are constructed to calculate the specific effective dose rates (the effective dose rate per Bq/kg of 40K, the 238U series, and the 232Th series) imposed on residents by building materials with the MCNPX code. The effect of chemical composition, position concerned in the room and thickness as well as density of material is analyzed. In order to facilitate more precise assessment of indoor external dose due to gamma-emitting radionuclides in building materials, three regressive expressions are proposed and validated by measured data to calculate specific effective rates for 40K, the 238U series and the 232Th series, respectively.
Neutron beam optimization for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is investigated using a 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. Design and optimization have been carried out for the target, cooling system, moderator, filter, reflector, and collimator to achieve a high flux of epithermal neutron and satisfy the IAEA criteria. Also, the performance of the designed beam in tissue is assessed by using a simulated Snyder head phantom. The results show that the optimization of the collimator and reflector is critical to finding the best neutron beam based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. Our designed beam has 2.49×109n/cm2s epithermal neutron flux and is suitable for BNCT of deep-seated brain tumors.
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