## 2013 Vol. 37, No. 12

Display Method: |

2013, 37(12): 123001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/123001

**Abstract:**

Data sets were collected with the BESⅢ detector at the BEPCⅡ collider at the center-of-mass energy of √

*s*=3.650 GeV during May 2009 and at √

*s*=3.773 GeV from January 2010 to May 2011. By analyzing the large angle Bhabha scattering events, the integrated luminosities of the two data sets are measured to be (44.49±0.02±0.44) pb

^{-1}and (2916.94±0.18±29.17) pb

^{-1}, respectively, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

2013, 37(12): 123101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/123101

**Abstract:**

The exact solution of Spinless-Salpeter equation (SSE) in the presence of Kink-Like potential is investigated. By using the basic concepts of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) formalism and the functional analysis method, we have obtained the bound state solutions in the closed form and the eigenfunctions of the system are reported in the term of hypergeometric function. We have also reported some numerical results.

2013, 37(12): 123102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/123102

**Abstract:**

The neutral kaon meson mixing plays an important role in the test of the Standard Model (SM) and new physics beyond it. Scale invariant unparticle physics induces a flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) transition of m K

^{0}-K

^{0}oscillation at the tree level. In this study, we investigate the scale invariant unparticle physics effects on the m K

^{0}-K

^{0}mixing. Based on the current experimental data, we give constraints of m K

^{0}-K

^{0}mixing on the unparticle parameters.

2013, 37(12): 123103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/123103

**Abstract:**

It is believed that the modification of Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a possible alternative for dark matter hypothesis. Although Bekenstein's TeVeS supplies a relativistic version of MOND, one may still wish for a more concise covariant formulism of MOND. In this paper, within covariant geometrical framework, we present another version of MOND. We show the spacetime structure of MOND with properties of Tully-Fisher relation and Lorentz invariance violation.

2013, 37(12): 124001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/124001

**Abstract:**

Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber (PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of

^{238}U and

^{235}U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. Then, the fission count of

^{238}U and

^{235}U in an individual uranium shell was obtained. In this work, MCNP5 and continuous energy cross sections ENDF/BV.0 were used for the analysis of fission rate distribution and fission count. The calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculation of fission rate of DU and EU were found to agree with the measured ones within 10% except at the positions in polyethylene region and the two positions near the outer surface. Because the fission chamber was not considered in the calculation of the fission counts of

^{238}U and

^{235}U, the calculated results did not agree well with the experimental ones.

2013, 37(12): 124101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/124101

**Abstract:**

A new scheme was recently proposed in which the usual

*SU*(3) quadrupole-quadrupole interaction was replaced by an

*O*(6) cubic interaction in the Interacting Boson Model, and also successfully applied to the description of

^{152}Sm for the

*N*=90 rare earth isotones with

*X*(5) symmetry. By using this new scheme, in the present work, we further explore the properties of another candidate of

^{150}Nd for the

*N*=90 with

*X*(5) symmetry. The low-lying energy levels and E2 transition rates are calculated and compared with the experimental data. The results show that the new scheme can also reasonably describe the experimental low-lying spectrum and the intraband and the interband E2 transitions for

^{150}Nd. However, for the low-lying spectrum, the

*O*(6) cubic interaction seems better in describing the energy levels, especially in higher excited states and γ band, yet the 0

_{2}

^{+}level within the β band is lower than the corresponding experimental value and the

*U*(5)-

*SU*(3) scheme seems better to describe the low-lying levels of β band; and for the B(E2) transition, for the intraband transitions within the ground band and some interband transitions between the β band and the ground band, the results from

*O*(6) cubic interaction are better than those from

*SU*(3) quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, yet of which seems better to describe the intraband E2 transitions within β band. The present work is very meaningful in helping us to understand in depth the new characteristics of symmetry by the higher order

*O*(6) cubic interaction.

2013, 37(12): 124102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/124102

**Abstract:**

The isoscalar and isovector collective multipole excitations in exotic nuclei are studied in the framework of a fully self-consistent relativistic continuum random phase approximation (RCRPA). In this method the contribution of the continuum spectrum to nuclear excitations is treated exactly by the single particle Green's function. Different from the cases in stable nuclei, there are strong low-energy excitations in neutron-rich nuclei and proton-rich nuclei. The neutron or proton excess pushes the centroid of the strength function to lower energies and increases the fragmentation of the strength distribution. The effect of treating the contribution of continuum exactly is also discussed.

2013, 37(12): 124103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/124103

**Abstract:**

Based on the universal properties of a critical point in different systems and that the QCD phase transitions fall into the same universality classes as the 3-dimensional Ising,

*O*(2) or

*O*(4) spin models, the critical behavior of cumulants and higher cumulant ratios of the order parameter from the three kinds of spin models is studied. We found that all higher cumulant ratios change dramatically the sign near the critical temperature. The qualitative critical behavior of the same order cumulant ratio is consistent in these three models.

2013, 37(12): 125101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/125101

**Abstract:**

The vacuum fluctuation (VF) effects on the properties of the hyperonic neutron star matter are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. The VF corrections result in the density dependence of in-medium baryon and meson masses. We compare our results obtained by adopting three kinds of meson-hyperon couplings. The introduction of both hyperons and VF corrections softens the equation of state (EoS) for the hyperonic neutron star matter and hence reduces hyperonic neutron star masses. The presence of the δ field enlarges the masses and radii of hyperonic neutron stars. Taking into account the uncertainty of meson-hyperon couplings, the obtained maximum masses of hyperonic neutron stars are in the range of 1.33

*M*

_{Θ}-1.55

*M*

_{Θ}.

2013, 37(12): 126001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/126001

**Abstract:**

A compact neutron spectrometer based on the liquid scintillator is presented for neutron energy spectrum measurements at the HL-2A Tokamak. The spectrometer was well characterized and a fast digital pulse shape discrimination software was developed using the charge comparison method. A digitizer data acquisition system with a maximum frequency of 1 MHz can work under an environment with a high count rate at HL-2A Tokamak. Specific radiation and magnetic shielding for the spectrometer were designed for the neutron spectrum measurement at the HL-2A Tokamak. For pulse height spectrum analysis, dedicated numerical simulation utilizing NUBEAM combined with GENESIS was performed to obtain the neutron energy spectrum. Subsequently, the transportation process from the plasma to the detector was evaluated with Monte Carlo calculations. The distorted neutron energy spectrum was folded with the response matrix of the liquid scintillation spectrometer, and good consistency was found between the simulated and measured pulse height spectra. This neutron spectrometer based on a digital acquisition system could be well adopted for the investigation of the auxiliary heating behavior and the fast-ion related phenomenon on different tokamak devices.

2013, 37(12): 126002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/126002

**Abstract:**

The CDEX collaboration has been established for direct detection of light dark matter particles, using ultra-low energy threshold point-contact p-type germanium detectors, in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL). The first 1 kg point-contact germanium detector with a sub-keV energy threshold has been tested in a passive shielding system located in CJPL. The outputs from both the point-contact P

^{+}electrode and the outside N

^{+}electrode make it possible to scan the lower energy range of less than 1 keV and at the same time to detect the higher energy range up to 3 MeV. The outputs from both P

^{+}and N

^{+}electrode may also provide a more powerful method for signal discrimination for dark matter experiment. Some key parameters, including energy resolution, dead time, decay times of internal X-rays, and system stability, have been tested and measured. The results show that the 1 kg point-contact germanium detector, together with its shielding system and electronics, can run smoothly with good performances. This detector system will be deployed for dark matter search experiments.

2013, 37(12): 126003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/126003

**Abstract:**

The gamma response function is required for energy calibration of EJ301 (5 cm in diameter and 20 cm in height) organic liquid scintillator detector by means of gamma sources. The GEANT4 and FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation packages were used to simulate the response function of the detector for standard

^{22}Na,

^{60}Co,

^{137}Cs gamma sources. The simulated results showed a good agreement with experimental data by incorporating the energy resolution function to simulation codes. The energy resolution and the position of the maximum Compton electron energy were obtained by comparing measured light output distribution with simulated one. The energy resolution of the detector varied from 21.2% to 12.4% for electrons in the energy region from 0.341 MeV to 1.12 MeV. The accurate position of the maximum Compton electron energy was determined at the position 81% of maximum height of Compton edges distribution. In addition, the relation of the electron energy calibration and the effective neutron detection thresholds were described in detail. The present results indicated that both packages were suited for studying the gamma response function of EJ301 detector.

2013, 37(12): 126101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/126101

**Abstract:**

The Large Area Water Cherenkov Array (LAWCA) experiment focuses on high energy gamma astronomy between 100 GeV and 30 TeV. Invoked by the idea of hardware triggerless structure, a prototype of LAWCA trigger electronics is implemented in one single VME-9U module which obtains all the data from the 100 Front End Electronic (FEE) endpoints. Since the trigger electronics accumulate all the information, the flexibility of trigger processing can be improved. Meanwhile, the dedicated hardware trigger signals which are fed back to front end are eliminated; this leads to a system with better simplicity and stability. To accommodate the 5.4 Gbps system average data rate, the fiber based high speed serial data transmission is adopted. Based on the logic design in one single FPGA device, real-time trigger processing is achieved; the reprogrammable feature of the FPGA device renders a reconfigurable structure of trigger electronics. Simulation and initial testing results indicate that the trigger electronics prototype functions well.

2013, 37(12): 126201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/126201

**Abstract:**

One of the instruments onboard the China Seismic Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) is the Low Energy Particle Detector (LEPD). The primary objective of LEPD is to provide measurements of the fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angles of 100 keV to 10 MeV electrons and protons from 2 to 50 MeV in the Earth's magnetosphere. The geometric factor is one of the principle parameters of a detector, which converts the physical quantity-count rate to the particle quantity-flux. In this paper, we calculated the geometric factor of LEPD via computer modeling of an isotropic radiation environment. It was first demonstrated that the radiation intensity related should obey a cosine-law, then a general sampling method of generating this distribution via GPS of GEANT4 was explained. Furthermore, combined with flux normalization, a comparison of the geometric factor calculation of a set of 2-layer detectors with different shapes (cylinder, truncated cone and rectangle) was performed. Results show a generally good agreement between simulation and analytical calculations for the cylinder and truncated cone detectors, and the result of the rectangular one, for which there is no accurate analytical formula, is consistent with the previous simulated results by others. As a practical instance of the 2-layer rectangle detector, the geometric factor of LEPD is 10.336±0.036 m cm

^{2}·sr for 10 MeV proton and 8.211±0.032 m cm

^{2}·sr for 8 MeV electron.

2013, 37(12): 127001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/127001

**Abstract:**

A new compact accelerating structure named Hybrid RFQ is proposed to accelerate a high-intensity low-energy heavy ion beam in HISCL (High Intensive heavy ion SuperConducting Linear accelerator), which is an injector of HIAF (Heavy Ion Advanced Research Facility). It is combined by an alternative series of acceleration gaps and RFQ sections. The proposed structure has a high accelerating ability compared with a conventional RFQ and is more compact than traditional DTLs. A Hybrid RFQ is designed to accelerate

^{238}U

^{34+}from 0.38 MeV/u to 1.33 MeV/u. The operation frequency is described to be 81.25 MHz at CW (continuous wave) mode. The design beam current is 1.0 mA. The results of beam dynamics and RF simulation of the Hybrid RFQ show that the structure has a good performance at the energy range for ion acceleration. The emittance growth is less than 5% in both directions and the RF power is less than 150 kW. In this paper, the results of beam dynamics and RF simulation of the Hybrid RFQ are presented.

2013, 37(12): 127002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/127002

**Abstract:**

We consider a scheme to generate a sub-picosecond electron bunch in the photocathode rf gun by improving the acceleration gradient in the gun, suitably tuning the bunch charge, the laser spot size and the acceleration phase, and reducing the growth of transverse emittance by laser shaping. A nondestructive technique is also reported to measure the electron bunch length, by measuring the high-frequency spectrum of wakefield radiation which is caused by the passage of a relativistic electron bunch through a channel surrounded by a dielectric.

2013, 37(12): 127003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/127003

**Abstract:**

The simulation and analysis for electron multipacting phenomenon in a low

*β*spoke superconducting cavity in ADS proton accelerator are proposed. Using both CST and Track3P codes, the electron multipacting calculation for

*β*=0.12 spoke superconducting cavity is implemented. The methods of multipacting calculation on both codes are studied and described. With the comparison between the calculation results and the cavity vertical test result, the accuracy and reliability of different codes on calculating multipacting are analyzed. Multipacting calculation can help to understand the results of vertical test and also can help to do the optimization in cavity design.

2013, 37(12): 127004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/127004

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the genetic algorithms are applied to the optimization problem of magnet sorting in an electron storage ring, according to which the objectives are set so that the closed orbit distortion and beta beating can be minimized and the dynamic aperture maximized. The sorting of dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets is optimized while the optimization results show the power of the application of genetic algorithms in magnet sorting.

2013, 37(12): 127005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/127005

**Abstract:**

Stabilization of the accelerating field in Drift Tube Linac(DTL) is obtained by inserting Post Couplers(PCs). On the basis of the equivalent circuit model for the DTL with and without asymmetrical PCs, stabilization is deduced quantitatively: we let δ

*ω*/

*ω*

_{0}be the relative frequency error, then we discover that the sensitivity of field to perturbation is proportional to √δω/

*ω*

_{0}without PCs and to δ

*ω*/

*ω*

_{0}with PCs. Then we adapt the circuit model of symmetrical PCs for the case of asymmetrical PCs. The circuit model shows how the slope of field distribution is changed by rotating the asymmetrical PCs and illustrates that the asymmetrical PCs have the same effect as the symmetrical ones in stabilization.

2013, 37(12): 128001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/128001

**Abstract:**

Pressure-induced phase transitions of multiferroic BiFeO

_{3}have been investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction with diamond anvil cell technique at room temperature. Present experimental data clearly show that rhombohedral (R3c) phase of BiFeO

_{3}first transforms to monoclinic (C2/m) phase at 7 GPa, then to orthorhombic (Pnma) phase at 11 GPa, which is consistent with recent theoretical ab initio calculation. However, we observe another peak at 2

*θ*=7° in the pressure range of 5-7 GPa that has not been reported previously. Further analysis reveals that this reflection peak is attributed to the orthorhombic (Pbam) phase, indicating the coexistance of monoclinic phase with orthorhombic phase in low pressure range.

2013, 37(12): 128002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/128002

**Abstract:**

A small fluctuation of the photon beam position will affect the intensity and polarization characteristics of synchrotron radiation (SR) when it enters an endstation through the related beamline. In this paper, by changing the electron orbit equilibrium position in the vertical direction, we have measured the corresponding changes in the absorption strength of the SR with a gold mesh in different chopper aperture positions. It is found that for three aperture positions, the absorption intensity of the gold mesh shows a good Gaussian distribution as the photon beam position moves, while the ratio of the SR intensity passing through the upper and lower apertures shows a monotonous variation. This suggests a new method for estimating the circular polarization degree of SR originating from the bending magnet based on our current measurement.

2013, 37(12): 128101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/128101

**Abstract:**

The beam tail effect of multi-bunches will influence the electron beam performance in a high intensity thermionic RF gun. Beam dynamic calculations that illustrate the working states of single beam tail and multi-pulse feed-in of a performance-enhanced EC-ITC (external cathode independent tunable cavity) RF gun for an FEL (free electron laser) injector are performed to estimate the extracted bunch properties. By using both Parmela and homemade MATLAB codes, the effects of a single beam tail as well as interactions of multi-pulses are analyzed, where a ring-based electron algorithm is adopted to calculated RF fields and the space-charge field. Furthermore, the procedure of unexpected deviated-energy particles mixed with an effective bunch head is described by the MATLAB code as well. As a result, the performance-enhanced EC-ITC RF gun is proved to have the capability to extract continual stable bunches suitable for a high requirement THz-FEL.

2013, 37(12): 128201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/12/128201

**Abstract:**

The defects, the behavior of 3

*d*electrons and the hyperfine interactions in binary Fe-Al alloys with different Al contents have been studied by measurements of positron lifetime spectra, coincidence Doppler broadening spectra of positron annihilation radiation and Mössbauer spectra. The results show that on increasing the Al content in Fe-Al alloys, the mean positron lifetime of the alloys increase, while the mean electron density of the alloys decrease. The increase of Al content in binary Fe-Al alloys will decrease the amount of unpaired 3

*d*electrons; as a consequence the probability of positron annihilation with 3

*d*electrons and the hyperfine field decrease rapidly. Mössbauer spectra of binary Fe-Al alloys with Al content less than 25 at.% show discrete sextets and these alloys make a ferromagnetic contribution at room temperature. The Mössbauer spectrum of Fe

_{70}Al

_{30}shows a broad singlet. As Al content higher than 40 at.%, the Mössbauer spectra of these alloys are singlet, that is, the alloys are paramagnetic. The behavior of a 3

*d*electron and its effect on the hyperfine field of the binary Fe-Al alloy has been discussed.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

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- Cosmology

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