2014 Vol. 38, No. 3
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In this paper, we calculated the branching ratios and direct CP violation of the four B→Kπ decays with the inclusion of all currently known next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. We found that (a) Besides the 10% enhancement from the NLO vertex corrections, the quark-loops and magnetic penguins, the NLO contributions to the form factors can provide an additional ~15% enhancement to the branching ratios, and lead to a very good agreement with the data; (b) The NLO pQCD predictions are ACPsir (B0→K+π-)=(-6.5±3.1)% and ACPsir (B0→K+π0)=(2.2±2.0)%, become well consistent with the data due to the inclusion of the NLO contributions.
We solve the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) equation in the presence of Hartmann ring-shaped potential in (3+1)-dimensional space-time. We obtain the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions by the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method.
In this paper, we calculate the off-shell superpotential of two Calabi-Yau manifolds with three parameters by integrating the period of the subsystem. We also obtain the Ooguri-Vafa invariants with open mirror symmetry.
The nuclear potentials between protons and different target nuclei are calculated by using the single folding model with the density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction. The fusion barrier heights and positions for proton projectiles fusing with different target nuclei with masses from 51 amu to 139 amu are systematically shown, with charge numbers and root-mean-square radii of the interacting nuclei. The parameterized formulas for the fusion barrier height and position are obtained for proton projectile fusing with the different nuclei. The calculated results of parameterized formulas are compared to empirical values, as well as those of the proximity potential and Akyüz-Winther (AW) potential. It is shown that the calculated results agree perfectly with theirs. The parameterized formulas can reproduce the exact barrier heights and positions for proton fusion systems.
The differential cross sections of elastic and inelastic scattering of 3He ions on 13C and 14C have been studied at an energy of 37.9 MeV with a double folding model based on M3Y-Reid effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The resulted parameters have been used for the standard Distorted Wave Born Approximation calculations of angular distributions corresponding to different excitations levels of 13C and 14C and deformation parameters have been deduced.
A VME-based experiment system for n-γ discrimination using the charge comparison method was established. A data acquisition program for controlling the programmable modules and processing data online via VME64X bus was developed through the use of LabVIEW. The two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots of the charge in the slow component vs. the total charge from 241Am-Be and 252Cf neutron sources are presented. The 2D scatter plots of the energy vs. the ratio of the charge in the slow component to the total charge of the pulses are also presented. The quality of n-γ discrimination was checked by the figure-of-merit, and the results showed good performance of n-γ discrimination at the low energy range. Neutrons and γ-rays were separated above 50 keVee (electron-equivalent energy). The quality of n-γ discrimination has been improved compared with others' results at five energies (150, 250, 350, 450, 550 keVee).
In the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project, the one kilometer square extensive air shower array (KM2A) is the the largest detector array in terms of effective area. It consists of 5635 electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) and 1221 muon detectors (MDs). Each ED is composed of 16 scintillator tiles readout by wavelength-shifting fibers that are bundled and attached by a 25 mm PMT. The design of the unit and its performances, such as photoelectron yield, time resolution and uniformity, are discussed in detail. An assembling scheme for the whole ED is established to guarantee the uniformity throughout all 16 tiles in a single ED and all EDs in mass production.
Detecting the X-ray emission of pulsars and obtaining the photons' time of arrival are the foundational steps in autonomous navigation via X-ray pulsar measurement. The precision of a pulse's time of arrival is mainly determined by the precision of photon arrival time measurement. In this work, a silicon drift detector is used to measure photon energy and arrival time. The measurement system consists of a signal detector, a processing unit, a signal acquisition unit and a data receiving unit. This system acquires the energy resolution and arrival time information of photons. In particular, background noise with different energies disturbs pulse profile forming, the system can also achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio profile. Ground test results show that this system can be applied in autonomous navigation based on X-ray pulsar measurement.
The recoil distance Doppler shift method has been widely used in the study of nuclear structure to determine the level lifetime and absolute transition probabilities. A capacitance servo control plunger based on this method has been successfully developed by the Nuclear Structure Group of the China Institute of Atomic Energy. Three microscopes were employed to check the parallelism and can therefore guarantee a delicate measurement of the distance between the target and the stopper. This new plunger made a successful performance in the test experiment and the measured lifetime of the 2+→0+ transition in 78Kr is in agreement with the previous value.
A novel algorithm for the discrimination of neutron and γ -ray events with wavelet transform modulus maximum (WTMM) in an organic scintillation has been investigated. Voltage pulses arising from a BC501A organic liquid scintillation detector in a mixed radiation field have been recorded with a fast digital sampling oscilloscope. The WTMM method using frequency-domain features exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutron and γ -ray events based on their different asymptotic decay trend between the positive modulus maximum curve and the negative modulus maximum curve in the scale-space plane. This technique has been verified by the corresponding mixed-field data assessed by the time-of-flight (TOF) method and the charge comparison (CC) method. It is shown that the characterization of neutron and γ ray achieved by the discrimination method based on WTMM is consistent with that afforded by the TOF method and better than the CC method. Moreover, the WTMM method itself has presented its ability to eliminate the noise without any pretreatment to the pulses.
A novel kind of SC (superconducting) solenoid coil is designed to satisfy the homogeneity requirement of the magnetic field. In this paper, we first calculate the current density distribution of the solenoid coil section through the linear programming method. Then a traditional solenoid and a nonrectangular section solenoid are designed to produce a central field up to 7 T with a homogeneity to the greatest extent. After comparision of the two solenoid coils designed in magnet field quality, fabrication cost and other aspects, the new design of the nonrectangular section of a solenoid coil can be realized through improving the techniques of framework fabrication and winding. Finally, the outlook and error analysis of this kind of SC magnet coil are also discussed briefly.
A superconducting solenoid prototype magnet for Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) Injection Ⅰ has been designed and fabricated, which has also been tested in a liquid Helium state inside a vertical Dewar in the Haerbin institute of Technology in November 2012. The design current was 210 A, when the test current reached 400 A no quench occurred so the solenoid magnet was forced to quench by the embedded heaters. The integral field strength, leakage field at the nearby upstream and downstream superconducting spoke cavities all meet the design requirements. At the same time, it also checked the reliability of the vertical test Dewar and the quenched detection system. The superconducting prototype magnet has accumulated valuable experiences for the coming batch magnets production and cryogenic test.
In the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLSⅡ), a new digital longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system will be developed to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities in the storage ring effectively. We design a new waveguide overloaded cavity longitudinal feedback kicker as the feedback actuator. The beam pipe of the kicker is a racetrack shape so as to avoid a transition part to the octagonal vacuum chamber. The central frequency and the bandwidth of the kicker have been simulated and optimized to achieve design goals by the HFSS code. A higher shunt impedance can be obtained by using a nose cone to reduce the feedback power requirement. Before the kicker cavity was installed in the storage ring, a variety of measurements were carried out to check its performance. All these results of simulation and measurement are presented.
Since the beta function of the electron beam within the undulator has a great influence on the power gain of the free electron laser (FEL), optimization of the undulator lattice becomes important. In this paper, the transfer matrix of the planar undulator is obtained from differential equations of the electron motion. Based on this, the lattice function of the planar undulator in a terahertz FEL oscillator proposed by Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST-FEL) is optimized and the expressions of the average beta function are derived. The accuracy of the optimization result was confirmed well by the numerical method. The application range of this analytical method is given as well. At last, the emittance growth in the horizontal direction due to the attenuation of the magnetic field is discussed.
The ADS (accelerator driven subcritical system) project was proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The initial proton beams delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively accelerated by 162.5 MHz 4.2 m long room temperature radio-frequency-quadrupoles (RFQ) operating in CW mode. To test the feasibility of this physical design, a new Fortran code for RFQ beam dynamics study, which is space charge dominated, was developed. This program is based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) technique in the time domain. Using the RFQ structure designed for the CADS project, the beam dynamics behavior is performed. The well-known simulation code TRACK is used for benchmarks. The results given by these two codes show good agreements. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented in this paper.
Thermal decomposition behaviors of TiH2 powder under a owing helium atmosphere and in a low vac- uum condition have been studied using an in situ EXAFS technique. By an EXAFS analysis containing the multiple scattering paths including H atoms, the changes of the hydrogen stoichiometric ratio and the phase transformation sequence are obtained. The results demonstrate that the initial decomposition temperature is dependent on experi- mental conditions, which occurs, respectively, at about 300 and 400℃ in a low vacuum condition and under a owing helium atmosphere. During the decomposition process of TiH2 in a low vacuum condition, the sample experiences a phase change process:δ(TiH2)→δ (TiHx)→δ(TiHx)+β(TiHx)→δ(TiHx)+β(TiHx)+α(Ti)→β(TiHx)+α(Ti)→α(Ti)+β(Ti). This study o ers a way to detect the structural information of hydrogen. A detailed discussion about the decomposition process of TiH2 is given in this paper.
Radiation dose is an important performance indicator of a dedicated breast CT (DBCT). In this paper, the method of putting thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) into a breast shaped PMMA phantom to study the dose distribution in breasts was improved by using smaller TLDs and a new half-ellipsoid PMMA phantom. Then the weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) was introduced to average glandular assessment in DBCT for the first time and two measurement modes were proposed for different sizes of breasts. The dose deviations caused by using cylindrical phantoms were simulated using the Monte Carlo method and a set of correction factors were calculated. The results of the confirmatory measurement with a cylindrical phantom (11 cm/8 cm) show that CTDIw gives a relatively conservative overestimate of the average glandular dose comparing to the results of Monte Carlo simulation and TLDs measurement. But with better practicability and stability, the CTDIw is suitable for dose evaluations in daily clinical practice. Both of the TLDs and CTDIw measurements demonstrate that the radiation dose of our DBCT system is lower than conventional two-view mammography.
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