2013 Vol. 37, No. 10

Another representation of the β form of the inhomogeneous Picard-Fuchs equation
XU Feng-Jun, YANG Fu-Zhong
2013, 37(10): 101001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/101001
In this letter we give another representation of the β form in the inhomogeneous Picard-Fuchs equation for open topological string for some one-parameter Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in weighted projective spaces. Furthermore, the corresponding domain wall tensions calculated by using these β forms are consistent with the results that appear in literature. The β form is essential for the calculation of the D-brane domain wall tension, and a convenient choice of β forms should simplify the calculation. The freedom of the choice of β forms shows some symmetries in Calabi-Yau space.
Harmonic lasing of X-ray free electron laser:on the way to smaller and cheaper
DENG Hai-Xiao, DAI Zhi-Min
2013, 37(10): 102001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/102001
By utilizing higher harmonics of undulator radiation, harmonic lasing is helpful in the development of compact X-ray free electron lasers (FELs), i.e. reducing their cost and size. Harmonic lasing of FELs has been experimentally demonstrated in the low-gain FEL oscillators from terahertz, infrared to ultraviolet spectral range. Based on the current status and future directions of short-wavelength FELs worldwide, this paper reviews the progress on harmonic lasing of X-ray FELs, mainly concentrating on the recently proposed harmonic lasing of X-ray FEL oscillators and further ideas on harmonic lasing of single pass X-ray FEL amplifiers.
Particle and field theory
Single vector-like top partner production in the left-right twin Higgs model at TeV energy eγ colliders
GUO Zhan-Ying, YANG Guang, YANG Bing-Fang
2013, 37(10): 103101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/103101
The left-right twin Higgs model contains a new vector-like heavy top quark, which mixes with the SM-like top quark. In this work, we studied the single vector-like top partner production via process e-γ→veTb at the International Linear Collider. We calculated the production cross section at tree level and displayed the relevant di erential distributions. The result shows that there will be 125 events produced each year with √s=2 TeV and the integrated luminosity Lint≈500 fb-1, and the b-quark tagging and the relevant missing energy E/T cut will be helpful to detect this new e ect.
Bound Dirac states for pseudoscalar Cornell potential:3+1 dimensions
A. A. Rajabi
2013, 37(10): 103102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/103102
The Cornell potential consists of Coulomb and linear potentials, i.e.-a/r+br, that it has received a great deal of attention in particle physics. In this paper, we present exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the pseudoscalar Cornell potential under spin and pseudospin symmetry limits in 3+1 dimensions. The energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are given in explicit forms.
Re-examination of constraints on the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution by Helioseismology
HE Jian-Jun, ZHANG Li-Yong, HOU Su-Qing, XU Shi-Wei
2013, 37(10): 104001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/104001
Nuclear reactions in stars occur between nuclei in the high-energy tail of the energy distribution and are sensitive to possible deviations from the standard equilibrium thermal-energy distribution, the well-known Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution (MBD). Strong constraints on such deviations were made previously with the detailed helioseismic information of the solar structure. With a small deviation parameterized with a factor exp[-δ (E/kT)2], it was shown δ restricted between -0.005 and +0.002. These constraints have been carefully re-examined in the present work. We find that a normalization factor was missed in the previous modified MBD. In this work, the normalization factor c is calculated as a function of δ. It shows the factor c is almost unity within the range 0< δ ≤0.002, which supports the previous conclusion. However, it demonstrates that δ cannot take a negative value from the normalization point of view. As a result, a stronger constraint on δ is defined as 0≤ δ ≤0.002. The astrophysical implication on the solar neutrino fluxes is simply discussed based on a positive δ value of 0.003. The reduction of the 7Be and 8B neutrino fluxes expected from the modified MBD can possibly shed alternative light on the solar neutrino problem. In addition, the resonant reaction rates for the 14N(p, γ)15O reaction are calculated with a standard MBD and a modified MBD, respectively. It shows that the rates are quite sensitive even to a very small δ. This work demonstrates the importance and necessity of experimental verification or testing of the well-known MBD at high temperatures.
Study of the total reaction cross section via QMD
YANG Lin-Meng, GUO Wen-Jun, ZHANG Fan, NI Sheng
2013, 37(10): 104101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/104101
This paper presents a new empirical formula to calculate the average nucleon-nucleon (N-N) collision number for the total reaction cross sections (σR). Based on the initial average N-N collision number calculated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), quantum correction and Coulomb correction are taken into account within it. The average N-N collision number is calculated by this empirical formula. The total reaction cross sections are obtained within the framework of the Glauber theory. σR of 23Al+12C, 24Al+12C, 25Al+12C, 26Al+12C and 27Al+12C are calculated in the range of low energy. We also calculate the σR of 27Al+12C with different incident energies. The calculated σR are compared with the experimental data and the results of Glauber theory including the σR of both spherical nuclear and deformed nuclear. It is seen that the calculated σR are larger than σR of spherical nuclear and smaller than σR of deformed nuclear, whereas the results agree well with the experimental data in low-energy range.
Hadron formation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering
SONG Li-Hua, LIU Na, DUAN Chun-Gui
2013, 37(10): 104102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/104102
Hadron production in lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering is studied in a model including quark energy loss and nuclear absorption. The leading-order computations for hadron multiplicity ratios are presented and compared with the selected HERMES experimental data with the quark hadronization occurring inside the nucleus by means of the hadron formation time. It is shown that with increase of the energy fraction carried by the hadron, the nuclear suppression on hadron multiplicity ratio from nuclear absorption gets bigger. It is found that when hadronization occurs inside the nucleus, the nuclear absorption is the dominant mechanism causing a reduction of the hadron yield. The atomic mass dependence of hadron attenuation for quark hadronization starting inside the nucleus is confirmed theoretically and experimentally to be proportional to A1/3.
Detection Technology , Electronics and Methods
Comparison of thermal neutron detection efficiency of 6Li scintillation glass and 3He gas proportional tube
XU Ming, TANG Zhi-Cheng, CHEN Guo-Ming, TAO Jun-Quan
2013, 37(10): 106001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/106001
We report on a comparison study of the 3He gas proportional tube and the 6Li incorporated scintillation glasses on thermal neutron detection efficiency. Both 3He and 6Li are used commonly for thermal neutron detection because of their high neutron capture absorption coefficient. By using a neutron source 252Cf and a paraffin moderator in an alignment system, we can get a small beam of thermal neutrons. A flash ADC is used to measure the thermal neutron spectrum of each detector, and the detected number of events is determined from the spectrum, then we can calculate the detection efficiency of different detectors. Meanwhile, the experiment has been modeled with GEANT4 to validate the results against the Monte Carlo simulation.
Reconstruction algorithm study of 2D interpolating resistive readout structure
XIU Qing-Lei, DONG Ming-Yi, LIU Rong-Guang, ZHANG Jian, OUYANG Qun, CHEN Yuan-Bo
2013, 37(10): 106002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/106002
Systematic investigations including both simulation and prototype tests have been done about the interpolating resistive readout structure with GEM (Gaseous Electron Multiplier) detector. From the simulation, we have a good knowledge of the process of charge diffusion on the surface of the readout plane and develop several reconstruction methods to determine the hit position. The total signal duration time of a typical event with the readout structure was about several hundred nanoseconds, which implied an ideal count rate up to 106 Hz. A stable working prototype was designed and fabricated after the simulation. Using 55Fe 5.9 keV X-ray, the image performance of the prototype was examined with flat field image and some special geometry shapes, meanwhile, an energy resolution of about 17% was obtained.
Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF
DU Zhong-Wei, SU Hong, QIAN Yi, KONG Jie
2013, 37(10): 106101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/106101
The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements.
A fast improved fat tree encoder for wave union TDC in an FPGA
SHEN Qi, ZHAO Lei, LIU Shu-Bin, LIAO Sheng-Kai, QI Bin-Xiang, HU Xue-Ye, PENG Cheng-Zhi, AN Qi
2013, 37(10): 106102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/106102
Up to now, the wave union method can achieve the best timing performance in FPGA-based TDC designs. However, it should be guaranteed in such a structure that the non-thermometer code to binary code (NTH2B) encoding process should be finished within just one system clock cycle. So the implementation of the NTH2B encoder is quite challenging considering the high speed requirement. Besides, the high resolution wave union TDC also demands that the encoder convert an ultra-wide input code to a binary code. We present a fast improved fat tree encoder (IFTE) to fulfill such requirements, in which bubble error suppression is also integrated. With this encoder scheme, a wave union TDC with 7.7 ps RMS and 3.8 ps effective bin size was implemented in an FPGA from Xilinx Virtex 5 family. An encoding time of 8.33 ns was achieved for a 276-bit non-thermometer code to a 9-bit binary code conversion. We conducted a series of tests on the oscillating period of the wave union launcher, as well as the overall performance of the TDC; test results indicate that the IFTE works well. In fact, in the implementation of this encoder, no manual routing or special constraints were required; therefore, this IFTE structure could also be further applied in other delay-chain-based FPGA TDCs.
Simultaneous least squares fitter based on the Lagrange multiplier method
GUAN Ying-Hui, ZHENG Yang-Heng, ZHU Yong-Sheng
2013, 37(10): 106201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/106201
We developed a least squares fitter used for extracting expected physics parameters from the correlated experimental data in high energy physics. This fitter considers the correlations among the observables and handles the nonlinearity using linearization during the χ2 minimization. This method can naturally be extended to the analysis with external inputs. By incorporating with Lagrange multipliers, the fitter includes constraints among the measured observables and the parameters of interest. We applied this fitter to the study of the m D0-D0 mixing parameters as the test-bed based on MC simulation. The test results show that the fitter gives unbiased estimators with correct uncertainties and the approach is credible.
Experimental study on the measurement of uranium casting enrichment by time-dependent coincidence method
XIE Wen-Xiong, LI Jian-Sheng, GONG Jian, ZHU Jian-Yu, HUANG Po
2013, 37(10): 106202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/106202
Based on the time-dependent coincidence method, a preliminary experiment has been performed on uranium metal castings with similar quality (about 8-10 kg) and shape (hemispherical shell) in different enrichments using neutron from Cf fast fission chamber and timing DT accelerator. Groups of related parameters can be obtained by analyzing the features of time-dependent coincidence counts between source-detector and two detectors to characterize the fission signal. These parameters have high sensitivity to the enrichment, the sensitivity coefficient (defined as (ΔRm)/R) can reach 19.3% per kg of 235U. We can distinguish uranium castings with different enrichments to hold nuclear weapon verification.
Transport of 3D space charge dominated beams
LÜ Jian-Qin
2013, 37(10): 107001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/107001
In this paper we present the theoretical analysis and the computer code design for the intense pulsed beam transport. Intense beam dynamics is a very important issue in low-energy high-current accelerators and beam transport systems. This problem affects beam transmission and beam qualities. Therefore, it attracts the attention of the accelerator physicists worldwide. The analysis and calculation for the intense beam dynamics are very complicated, because the state of particle motion is dominated not only by the applied electromagnetic fields, but also by the beam-induced electromagnetic fields (self-fields). Moreover, the self fields are related to the beam dimensions and particle distributions. So, it is very difficult to get the self-consistent solutions of particle motion analytically. For this reason, we combine the Lie algebraic method and the particle in cell (PIC) scheme together to simulate intense 3D beam transport. With the Lie algebraic method we analyze the particle nonlinear trajectories in the applied electromagnetic fields up to third order approximation, and with the PIC algorithm we calculate the space charge effects to the particle motion. Based on the theoretical analysis, we have developed a computer code, which calculates beam transport systems consisting of electrostatic lenses, electrostatic accelerating columns, solenoid lenses, magnetic and electric quadruples, magnetic sextupoles,octopuses and different kinds of electromagnetic analyzers. The optimization calculations and the graphic display for the calculated results are provided by the code.
Structural analysis of quarter-wave resonators in IMP
ZHANG Cong, HE Shou-Bo, WANG Ruo-Xu, ZHANG Sheng-Hu, HE Yuan, ZHAO Hong-Wei
2013, 37(10): 107002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/107002
The taper-shaped superconducting quarter wave resonators with frequency of 80.5 MHz, β of 0.041 and 0.085 have been pre-researched. The radio frequency (RF) design of the cavities has been completed, and the structural design is also an important aspect which will be discussed in the following. The frequency shift caused by the etching effects of the surface treatment, the helium bath pressure and the Lorentz force, and the mechanical modes caused by the microphonic excitation have been analyzed. The results show that the frequency variation from the Lorentz force is not serious and stiffening rings are explored aimed at decreasing the deformation brought by the helium pressure and microphonic excitation.
Wrinkle analysis and mounting optimization of the primary stripper foil for CSNS
HE Zhe-Xi, QIU Jing, LI Chun-Hua, CHEN Jia-Xin, KANG Ling, QU Hua-Min, ZOU Yi-Qin
2013, 37(10): 107003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/107003
The primary stripper foil's lifetime is very important for high intensity proton accelerators. Besides high temperature, the wrinkle of the stripper foil is also harmful for the lifetime and the injection efficiency. However, the recent wrinkle simulation is still not perfect. In this paper, a new method for wrinkle analysis has been proposed for the first time, which is integrated with the buckling theory. Based on this method, the wrinkle vibration and the maximum wrinkle shape of the normally mounted foil have been simulated. Then, two mounting schemes for reducing the wrinkle have been contrasted. Finally, the foil mounting structure for CSNS has been designed.
Modified read-out system of the beam phase measurement system for CSNS
BAI Jiao-Ni, ZENG Lei, WANG Biao, LI Peng, LI Fang, XU Tao-Guang, LI Zi-Gao
2013, 37(10): 107004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/107004
The customized beam phase measurement system can meet the requirement of beam loss control of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). However, its read-out part cannot satisfy the requirement of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). CSNS uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) as its control system. So it is necessary to develop the EPICS read-out system consisting of EPICS IOC databases, driver support and OPIs. The new system has been successfully tested in the RFQ. In the future, it will be applied to the beam diagnostics of CSNS.
Longitudinal Schottky spectra of a bunched Ne10+ ion beam at the CSRe
WEN Wei-Qiang, MA Xin-Wen, ZHANG Da-Cheng, ZHU Xiao-Long, MENG Ling-Jie, LI Jie, LIU Hui-Ping, ZHAO Dong-Mei, WANG Zhi-Shuai, MAO Rui-Shi, ZHAO Tie-Cheng, WU Jun-Xia, MA Xiao-Ming, YAN Tai-Lai, LI Guo-Hong, YANG Xiao-Dong, LIU Yong, YANG Jian-Cheng, YUAN You-Jin, XIA Jia-Wen, XU Hu-Shan, XIAO Guo-Qing, ZHAO Hong-Wei
2013, 37(10): 107005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/107005
The longitudinal Schottky spectra of a radio-frequency (RF) bunched and electron cooled 22Ne10+ ion beam at 70 MeV/u have been studied by a newly installed resonant Schottky pick-up at the experimental cooler storage ring (CSRe), at IMP. For an RF-bunched ion beam, a longitudinal momentum spread of Δp/p=1.6×10-5 has been reached with less than 107 stored ions. The reduction of momentum spread compared with a coasting ion beam was observed from Schottky noise signal of the bunched ion beam. In order to prepare the future laser cooling experiment at the CSRe, the RF-bunching power was modulated at 25th, 50th and 75th harmonic of the revolution frequency, effective bunching amplitudes were extracted from the Schottky spectrum analysis. Applications of Schottky noise for measuring beam lifetime with ultra-low intensity of ion beams are presented, and it is relevant to upcoming experiments on laser cooling of relativistic heavy ion beams and nuclear physics at the CSRe.
A possible approach to reduce the emittance of HLS-Ⅱ storage ring using a Robinson wiggler
LI Jing-Yi, LIU Gong-Fa, XU Wei, LI Wei-Min, LI Yong-Jun
2013, 37(10): 107006. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/107006
In this paper, we present some preliminary studies on using a Robinson wiggler to reduce the horizontal beam emittance in the Hefei Light Source Ⅱ (HLS-Ⅱ) storage ring. A proof-of-principle lattice demonstrates that it is possible to reduce its emittance by 50% with a 2-meter long wiggler. This encouraging result suggests a feasible option to significantly improve the machine performance at a relatively low cost.
Synchrotron radiation,applications of nuclear techniquees,etc
Beam test of a one-dimensional position sensitive chamber on synchrotron radiation
LIU Mei, DAI Hong-Liang, QI Hui-Rong, ZHUANG Bao-An, ZHANG Jian, LIU Rong-Guang, ZHU Qi-Ming, OUYANG Qun, CHEN Yuan-Bo, JIANG Xiao-Shan, WANG Ya-Jie, LIU Peng, CHANG Guang-Cai
2013, 37(10): 108001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/108001
A one-dimensional single-wire chamber was developed to provide high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments with synchrotron radiation. A diffraction test using the sample of SiO2 has been accomplished at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Source. The data of the beam test were analyzed and some diffraction angles were obtained. The experimental results were in good agreement with standard data from ICDD powder diffraction file. The precision of diffraction angles was 1% to 4.7%. Most of the relative errors between measured values of diffraction angles and existing data were less than 1%. As for the detector, the best position resolution in the test was 138 μm (σ value) with an X-ray tube. Finally, discussions of the results were given. The major factor that affected the precision of measurement was deviation from the flat structure of the detector. The effect was analyzed and the conclusion was reached that it would be the optimal measurement scheme when the distance between the powder sample and detector was from 400 mm to 600 mm.
A program for SAXS data processing and analysis
LI Zhi-Hong
2013, 37(10): 108002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/108002
A computer program for small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data processing and analysis named S.exe written in Intel Visual Fortran has been developed. This paper briefly introduces its main theory and function.
Design study of an improved laser wire system for electron beam measurement
WU Dai, YANG Ren-Jun, BAI Wei, LI Peng, LI Ming, YANG Xing-Fan
2013, 37(10): 108101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/10/108101
The laser wire (LW) method has been demonstrated to be an effective non-interceptive technique for measuring transverse profile and emittance of electron beams in colliders, storage rings and dumping rings. In this paper, we present an improved design of high repetition LW system for high average power free electron lasers (HAP FELs) and energy recovery linacs (ERLs). This improved LW utilizes the excess power of the photocathode drive laser, thus making itself much cheaper and simpler. The system main parameters are optimized with numerical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that resolutions would be better than 100 μm and scanning time less than 1 minute. Status of the experiment preparation is also presented.