2012 Vol. 36, No. 9

Particle and field theory
A note on the soliton picture in a Skyrme-like model
JIA Duo-Jie, ZHANG Jin-Hu, WANG Qing
2012, 36(9): 797-804. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/001
The role of the anti-commutator term of the chiral current in a Skyrme-like model was studied associated with the symmetric Skyrmion and the nucleon properties in terms of the zero-mode quantization. It is shown that the Skyrmion is stable only when the anti-commutator term in the model has a negative coupling constant(-k2) while a QCD functional analysis gives a positive coupling constant. This implies either the coupling is negligibly small and negative, or the soliton picture for the baryons is beyond the approximation of QCD at the level of the quark loop.
Dynamical CP violation at finite temperature
WANG Dian-Fu, SUN Xiao-Yu, LIANG Chao
2012, 36(9): 805-809. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/002
By using the generalized Yang-Mills model, CP violation behavior at finite temperature is investigated, and it is shown that dynamical CP violation of the generalized Yang-Mills model at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperature.
particle and nuclear astrophysics and cosmology
Supersymmetric extension of the minimal dark matter model
CHANG Xue, LIU Chun, MA Feng-Cai, YANG Shuo
2012, 36(9): 810-817. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/003
The minimal dark matter model is given a supersymmetric extension. A super SU(2)L quintuplet is introduced with its fermionic neutral component still being the dark matter, and the dark matter mass is about 19.7 TeV. Mass splitting among the quintplet due to supersymmetry particles is found to be negligibly small compared to the electroweak corrections. Other properties of this supersymmetry model are studied, it has the solutions to the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT anomaly, and the predictions in higher energies need further experimental data to verify them.
Nuclear and ion Physics
α-cluster structure of 12C and 16O in the covariant density functional theory with a shell-model-like approach
LIU Lang, ZHAO Peng-Wei
2012, 36(9): 818-822. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/004
The α-cluster structures for 12C and 16O are investigated in the framework of the covariant density functional theory, where the pairing correlation is treated with a particle number conserving shell-model-like approach. The ground states of 12C and 16O have been calculated and the density distributions demonstrate an equilateral triangle 3α clustering for 12C and a regular tetrahedron 4α clustering for 16O. The existence of linear chain structure of both 12C and 16O is revealed at high quadrupole deformation.
Neutron nuclear data evaluation of actinide nuclei for CENDL-3.1
CHEN Guo-Chang, CAO Wen-Tian, YU Bao-Sheng, TANG Guo-You, SHI Zhao-Min, TAO Xi
2012, 36(9): 823-826. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/005
New evaluations for several actinide nuclei of the third version of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Neutron Reaction Data (CENDL-3.1) have been completed and released. The evaluation is for all neutron induced reactions with uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium in the mass range A=232-241, 236-239, 236-246 and 240-244, respectively, and cover the incident neutron energy up to 20 MeV. In the present evaluation, much more effort was devoted to improving the reliability of the evaluated nuclear data for available new measured data, especially scarce or absent experimental data. A general description for the evaluation of several actinides' data is presented.
A tentative method for assigning the configuration of a triaxial nuclei in TRS
LI Xiao-Wei, LU Jing-Bin, YU Shao-Ying, BAI Hong-Bo, SHEN Cai-Wan
2012, 36(9): 827-830. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/006
A tentative method based on the principle of minimum energy is put forward for assigning the reasonable configuration of a triaxial nucleus in TRS. This method is proved by the TSD of 167Lu nucleus that has been calculated previously by TRS.
Mass dependence of pion-induced fission cross sections on the level density parameter
Zafar Yasin, Warda Iram, Ikram Shahzad
2012, 36(9): 831-835. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/007
Fission probabilities and fission cross sections strongly depend on the mass number of the target and energy of the projectile. In this research work, a cascade-exciton model (using CEM95 computer code) has been implemented to observe the dependence of pion-induced fission cross sections and fission probabilities on the target mass and ratio of the level density parameter in fission to neutron emission. The analysis has been performed for both the positive and negative pions as the projectile at 80, 100 and 150 MeV energies. The computed cross sections satisfactorily reproduced the experimental findings when compared with the available experimental data in the literature. We observed a smooth dependence at 150 MeV, and a sharper dependence at 80 and 100 MeV pion energy, in the fissility region above 29.44.
Temperature-dependent cross sections for πφ and ρφ nonresonant reactions in hadronic matter
LUO Zhi-Feng XU Xiao-Ming
2012, 36(9): 836-845. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/008
With a potential of which the large-distance part reflects lattice gauge results and of which the short-distance part is given by one gluon exchange plus perturbative one- and two-loop corrections, the Schrödinger equation brings about temperature dependence of meson masses and mesonic quark-antiquark relative-motion wave functions. The ground-state meson masses drop with increasing temperature. The transition amplitude calculated from the potential, the meson masses and the wave functions gives temperature-dependent cross sections for the five nonresonant reactions πφ→KK* (or K*K), πφ→K*K*,ρφ→KK,ρφ→KK*(orK*K) and ρφ→K*K*. The numerical temperature-dependent cross sections are parametrized. The peak cross section of either πφ→KK* or πφ→K*K* increases from T=0 to T=0.75Tc and decreases with further increasing temperature. The cross section for ρφ→KK,ρφ→KK* and ρφ→K*K* has a decreasing trend while the temperature increases from 0.75Tc.
Detection Technology and Methods
Design and optimization of the readout system for X-ray CCDs
LU Bo, CUI Wei-Wei, WANG Yu-Sa, ZHU Yue, ZHANG Yi, XU Yu-Peng, CHEN Yong, HUO Jia, LI Wei, HAN Da-Wei, LI Mao-Shun, YANG Yan-Ji, WANG Juan, CHEN Tian-Xiang, HU Wei, LI Cheng-Kui, LIU Xiao-Yan
2012, 36(9): 846-850. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/009
A readout system for X-ray CCDs based on an improved architecture is presented; by optimizing several critical circuit blocks along the analog signal chain, the conflict between the readout speed and readout noise is greatly alleviated. Using CCD47-10 as its target CCD, the readout system has achieved 8.6e- readout noise and 142 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV Mn m Kα under a pixel rate of 80 kHz. Also its performance of imaging has been investigated.
Study of a bulk-Micromegas with a resistive anode
FAN Sheng-Nan, FAN Rui-Rui, WANG Bo, QI Hui-Rong, OUYANG Qun, YI Fu-Ting, ZHAO Tian-Chi, CHEN Yuan-Bo, LIU Mei, LIU Rong-Guang, ZHANG Jian
2012, 36(9): 851-854. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/010
The design and performance of a Micromegas with a resistive anode are presented in this paper. A thin resistive sheet with volume resistivity of 1012 Ω·m cm is glued onto the readout electrode surface and its performance is investigated by using a 55Fe X-ray radioactive source in the operation gas of argon and isobutene mixtures (Ar/Iso=95/5). The gas gain at different mesh high voltage, counting rate and working time are given. Energy spectra at different working voltages are measured and the results are discussed. We have oberved that a Micromegas with a resistive anode can be operated at higer gain than a standard Micromegas without sparks.
MSE/SSE discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector
LI Yu-Lan, LI Jin, YUE Qian, LI Yuan-Jing
2012, 36(9): 855-860. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/011
Having advantages of low capacitance and low energy threshold, the PC-HPGe (Point-Contact High Purity Germanium) detector has found its application in the direct detection of WIMP(Weak Interaction Massive Particle) in CDEX (China Darkmatter Experiment). The MSE (Multi-Site Event) and SSE(Single-Site Event) discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector are introduced in this article, including their physical basis, the electronics system and the algorithms to implement them. Behaviors of the PC-HPGe detector are studied intensively through this research and finally the experimental results of the LE discrimination method are presented.
Monte Carlo simulations for 20 MV X-ray spectrum reconstruction of a linear induction accelerator
WANG Yi, LI Qin, JIANG Xiao-Guo
2012, 36(9): 861-866. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/012
To study the spectrum reconstruction of the 20 MV X-ray generated by the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator, the Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate the attenuations of the X-ray in the attenuators of different thicknesses and thus provide the transmission data. As is known, the spectrum estimation from transmission data is an ill-conditioned problem. The method based on iterative perturbations is employed to derive the X-ray spectra, where initial guesses are used to start the process. This algorithm takes into account not only the minimization of the differences between the measured and the calculated transmissions but also the smoothness feature of the spectrum function. In this work, various filter materials are put to use as the attenuator, and the condition for an accurate and robust solution of the X-ray spectrum calculation is demonstrated. The influences of the scattering photons within different intervals of emergence angle on the X-ray spectrum reconstruction are also analyzed.
An emittance measurement device for a space-charge dominated electron beam
WANG Wen-Jing, HUANG Sen-Lin, QUAN Sheng-Wen, LIN Lin, LIU Ke-Xin
2012, 36(9): 867-870. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/013
Beam emittance is one of the most important parameters for electron sources. To investigate the beam emittance of the 3.5-cell DC-SC photocathode injector developed at Peking University, a multi-slit emittance measurement device has been designed and manufactured. The designed slit width, mask thickness and beamlet drift length are 100 μ m, 3 mm and 430 mm respectively. It is suitable for the electron beam with energy of about 5 MeV and the average current less than 0.1 mA. The preliminary measurement result of the rms emittance of the electron beam produced by the DC-SC injector is about 5-7 mm·mrad.
A positron source using an axially oriented crystal associated to a granular amorphous converter
XU Cheng-Hai, Robert Chehab, Peter Sievers, Xavier Artru, Michel Chevallier, Olivier Dadoun, PEI Guo-Xi, Vladimir M, Alessandro Variola
2012, 36(9): 871-878. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/014
A non-conventional positron source using the intense γ radiation from an axially oriented monocrystal which materializes into e+e- pairs in a granular amorphous converter is described. The enhancement of photon radiation by multi-GeV electrons crossing a tungsten crystal along its <111> axis is reported. The resulting enhancement of pair production in an amorphous converter placed 2 meters downstream, is also reported. Sweeping off the charged particles from the crystal by a bending magnet upstream of the converter allows a significant reduction of the deposited energy density. Substituting a granular target made of small spheres for the usual compact one, makes the energy dissipation easier. The deposited energy and corresponding heating are analyzed and solutions for cooling are proposed. The configurations studied here for this kind of positron source allow its consideration for unpolarized positrons for the ILC.
Electron acceleration in the inverse free electron laser with a helical wiggler by axial magnetic field and ion-channel guiding
Reza Khazaeinezhad, Mahdi Esmaeilzadeh
2012, 36(9): 879-885. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/015
Electron acceleration in the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) with a helical wiggler in the presence of ion-channel guiding and axial magnetic field is investigated in this article. The effects of tapering wiggler amplitude and axial magnetic field are calculated for the electron acceleration. In free electron lasers, electron beams lose energy through radiation while in IFEL electron beams gain energy from the laser. The equation of electron motion and the equation of energy exchange between a single electron and electromagnetic waves are derived and then solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The tapering effects of a wiggler magnetic field on electron acceleration are investigated and the results show that the electron acceleration increases in the case of a tapered wiggler magnetic field with a proper taper constant.
Design of a superconducting magnet for CADS
YANG Xiao-Liang, MA Li-Zhen, WU Wei, ZHENG Shi-Jun, DU Jun-Jie, HAN Shao-Fei, GUAN Ming-Zhi, HE Yuan
2012, 36(9): 886-890. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/016
This paper describes a superconducting magnet system for the China Accelerator Driven System (CADS). The magnetic field is provided by one main, two bucking and four racetrack coils. The main coil produces a central field of up to 7 T and the effective length is more than 140 mm, the two bucking coils can shield most of the fringe field, and the four racetrack superconducting coils produce the steering magnetic field. Its leakage field in the cavity zone is about 5× 10-5 T when the shielding material Niobium and cryogenic permalloy are used as the Meissner shielding and passive shielding respectively. The quench calculations and protection system are also discussed.
Preliminary study of the higher-harmoni ccavity for HLS-Ⅱ
WU Cong-Feng, FAN Hao, WANG Lin, LIU Guang-Chao, FENG Guang-Yao, LI Wei-Min
2012, 36(9): 891-894. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/017
A higher-harmonic cavity will be used to increase the beam lifetime and suppress coupled-bunch instabilities for Hefei Light Source-Ⅱ. In this paper, results simulated by the particle-tracking model confirm that tuning in the harmonic cavity may suppress the parasitic coupled-bunch instabilities. The factors calculated for lifetime improvement are larger than 2.5. The 3rd and 4th harmonic cavities have been designed. In particular, the absorbers and antenna couplers are applied in harmonic cavities to damp the higher order modes. Finally, the 4th harmonic cavity similar to the Duke's RF cavity will be used for HLS-Ⅱ.
Synchrotron radiation,applications of nuclear techniquees,etc
Calculations of operating schemes for a passive harmonic cavity in HLS-Ⅱ
FAN Hao, WU Cong-Feng, LIU Guang-Chao
2012, 36(9): 895-899. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/018
A passive higher harmonic cavity (HHC) will be used in the Hefei Light Source II Project (HLS-Ⅱ) to lengthen the bunch and consequently increase the beam lifetime dominated by Touschek scattering. The effects of constant voltage and constant detuning have been calculated and compared over the operating current from 0.4 to 0.2 A on the bunch lengthening for the passive normal conducting harmonic cavity system in HLS-Ⅱ. The results show that the bunch shape has less change and the lifetime improvement factors are not less than 2.7 over the beam currents for the constant voltage case. The constant voltage operating scheme may be applied to our machine.
Evaluation and prediction of the degradation of space Si solar cells induced by a low-earth-orbit radiation environment
GAO Xin, YANG Sheng-Sheng, FENG Zhan-Zu, ZHANG Lei
2012, 36(9): 900-904. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/019
Space-graded silicon solar cells are evaluated by 1 MeV and 2 MeV electron-irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) is presented and analyzed. The degradation at both electron energies has been correlated with the displacement damage dose (Dd). A good linearity between the electron Dd and the mean Pmax degradation is obtained. The concept of Dd has also been used to predict the Si solar cell response in a low-earth-orbit (Altitude 799 km, Inclination 99o) radiation environment, considering the shielded effect of a 120 μ m-thick silica coverglass on reducing the radiation. Compared with the on-orbit data from a Si solar array of a Chinese satellite (duration from April 2007 to July 2010), a good match can be found between the on-orbit data and the predicted results using Dd methodology, indicating the method is appropriate for evaluating the radiation damage of the solar cells, and also to provide a new technique for studying radiation effects on the optoelectronic detectors used in many high energy physics applications, where harsh radiation environments produce damage in optoelectronic device materials.
Designing of the 14 MeV neutron moderator for BNCT
CHENG Dao-Wen, LU Jing-Bin, YANG Dong, LIU Yu-Min, WANG Hui-Dong, MA Ke-Yan
2012, 36(9): 905-908. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/020
In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the ratio of the fast neutron flux to the neutron flux in the tumor (RFNT) must be less than 3%. If a D-T neutron generator is used in BNCT, the 14 MeV neutron moderator must be optimized to reduce the RFNT. Based on the neutron moderation theory and the simulation results, tungsten, lead and diamond were used to moderate the 14 MeV neutrons. Satisfying RFNT of less than 3%, the maximum neutron flux in the tumor was achieved with a three-layer moderator comprised of a 3 cm thick tungsten layer, a 14 cm thick lead layer and a 21 cm thick diamond layer.
Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers
WANG Fang-Fang, ZHU Jing-Tao, ZHONG Qi, WANG Zhan-Shan, Philippe Jonnard, Karine Le, Michel Andr, Michel Fialin
2012, 36(9): 909-914. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/9/021
The effect of Ar pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers is investigated. W/Si multilayers were deposited by a high vacuum DC magnetron sputtering system. The Ar pressure was changed from 1.0 to 5.0 mTorr with an interval of 1.0 mTorr during the deposition process. Electron probe microanalysis and Rutherford backscattering are performed to determine the Ar content incorporated within these multilayers. The results demonstrate that less Ar is incorporated within the sample when more Ar is used in the plasma, which could be explained by the increase of the collision probability and the decrease in the kinetic energy of Ar ions arriving at the substrate when more Ar exists. The grazing incident X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) at 0.154 nm is used to determine the structural parameters of the layers. The results show that the structures of these multilayers prepared at different Ar pressure are very similar and that the interface roughness increases quickly when the Ar pressure is higher than 3.0 mTorr. The measurements of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity indicate that the reflectivity decreases when Ar pressure increases. The fitting results of GIXR and EUV reflectivity curves indicate that with an increase of Ar pressure, the density and decrement of the refractive index are increased for W and decreased for Si, which is mainly due to (1) the decrease in Ar content incorporated within these multilayers which affects their performance and (2) the increase of collision probability for sputtered W and Si, the decrease of their average kinetic energy arriving at the substrate, and thus the loosing of their layers.