Gain of harmonic generation in high gain free electron laser
- Received Date: 2007-06-29
- Accepted Date: 2007-08-09
- Available Online: 2008-04-05
Abstract: In a planar undulator employed free electron laser (FEL), each harmonic radiation starts from linear amplification and ends with nonlinear harmonic interactions of the lower nonlinear harmonics and the fundamental radiation. In this paper, we investigate the harmonic generation based on the dispersion relation driven from the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations, taking into account the effects due to energy spread, emittance, betatron oscillation of electron beam as well as diffraction guiding of the radiation field. A 3D universal scaling function for gain of the linear harmonic generation and a 1D universal scaling function for gain of the nonlinear harmonic generation are presented, which promise rapid computation in FEL design and optimization. The analytical approaches have been validated by 3D simulation results in large range.