2016 Vol. 40, No. 9

Terrestrial matter effects on reactor antineutrino oscillations at JUNO or RENO-50: how small is small?
Yu-feng Li, Yi-fang Wang, Zhi-zhong Xing
2016, 40(9): 091001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/091001
We have carefully examined, in both analytical and numerical ways, how small the terrestrial matter effects can be in a given medium-baseline reactor antineutrino oscillation experiment like JUNO or RENO-50. Taking the forthcoming JUNO experiment as an example, we show that the inclusion of terrestrial matter effects may reduce the sensitivity of the neutrino mass ordering measurement by ΔχMO2≈0.6, and a neglect of such effects may shift the best-fit values of the flavor mixing angle θ12 and the neutrino mass-squared difference Δ21 by about 1σ to 2σ in the future data analysis. In addition, a preliminary estimate indicates that a 2σ sensitivity of establishing the terrestrial matter effects can be achieved for about 10 years of data taking at JUNO with the help of a suitable near detector implementation.
A statistical approach to describe highly excited heavy and superheavy nuclei
Peng-Hui Chen, Zhao-Qing Feng, Jun-Qing Li, Hong-Fei Zhang
2016, 40(9): 091002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/091002
A statistical approach based on the Weisskopf evaporation theory has been developed to describe the de-excitation process of highly excited heavy and superheavy nuclei, in particular for the proton-rich nuclei. The excited nucleus is cooled by evaporating γ-rays, light particles (neutrons, protons, α etc) in competition with binary fission, in which the structure effects (shell correction, fission barrier, particle separation energy) contribute to the processes. The formation of residual nuclei is evaluated via sequential emission of possible particles above the separation energies. The available data of fusion-evaporation excitation functions in the 28Si+198Pt reaction can be reproduced nicely within the approach.
Particles and Fields
Can X(5568) be a tetraquark state?
2016, 40(9): 093101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/093101
General scan in flavor parameter space in models with vector quark doublets and an enhancement in the B→Xsγ process
Wenyu Wang, Zhao-Hua Xiong, Xin-Yan Zhao
2016, 40(9): 093102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/093102
In models with vector-like quark doublets, the mass matrices of up and down type quarks are related. Precise diagonalization of the mass matrices has become an obstacle in numerical studies. In this work we first propose a diagonalization method. As its application, in the Standard Model with one vector-like quark doublet we present the quark mass spectrum and Feynman rules for the calculation of B→Xsγ. We find that i) under the constraints of the CKM matrix measurements, the mass parameters in the bilinear term are constrained to a small value by the small deviation from unitarity; ii) compared with the fourth generation extension of the Standard Model, there is an enhancement to the B→Xsγ process in the contribution of vector-like quarks, resulting in a non-decoupling effect in such models.
Feynman rules for neutrinos and new neutralinos in the BLMSSM
Xing-Xing Dong, Shu-Min Zhao, Hai-Bin Zhang, Fang Wang, Tai-Fu Feng
2016, 40(9): 093103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/093103
In a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model where baryon and lepton numbers are local gauge symmetries (BLMSSM), we deduce the Feynman rules for neutrinos and new neutralinos. We briefly introduce the mass matrices for the particles and the related couplings in this work, which are very useful to research the neutrinos and new neutralinos.
Behavior and finite-size effects of the sixth order cumulant in the three-dimensional Ising universality class
Xue Pan, Li-Zhu Chen, Yuan-Fang Wu
2016, 40(9): 093104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/093104
The high-order cumulants of conserved charges are suggested to be sensitive observables to search for the critical point of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This has been calculated to the sixth order in experiments. Corresponding theoretical studies on the sixth order cumulant are necessary. Based on the universality of the critical behavior, we study the temperature dependence of the sixth order cumulant of the order parameter using the parametric representation of the three-dimensional Ising model, which is expected to be in the same universality class as QCD. The density plot of the sign of the sixth order cumulant is shown on the temperature and external magnetic field plane. We found that at non-zero external magnetic field, when the critical point is approached from the crossover side, the sixth order cumulant has a negative valley. The width of the negative valley narrows with decreasing external field. Qualitatively, the trend is similar to the result of Monte Carlo simulation on a finite-size system. Quantitatively, the temperature of the sign change is different. Through Monte Carlo simulation of the Ising model, we calculated the sixth order cumulant of different sizes of systems. We discuss the finite-size effects on the temperature at which the cumulant changes sign.
Nuclear Physics
Effect of Wigner energy on the symmetry energy coefficient in nuclei
Jun-Long Tian, Hai-Tao Cui, Teng Gao, Ning Wang
2016, 40(9): 094101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/094101
The nuclear symmetry energy coefficient (including the coefficient asym(4) of the I4 term) of finite nuclei is extracted by using the differences of available experimental binding energies of isobaric nuclei. It is found that the extracted symmetry energy coefficient asym*(A,I) decreases with increasing isospin asymmetry I, which is mainly caused by Wigner correction, since esym* is the summation of the traditional symmetry energy esym and the Wigner energy eW. We obtain the optimal values J=30.25±0.10 MeV, ass=56.18±1.25 MeV, asym(4)=8.33±1.21 MeV and the Wigner parameter x=2.38±0.12 through a polynomial fit to 2240 measured binding energies for nuclei with 20≤A≤261 with an rms deviation of 23.42 keV. We also find that the volume symmetry coefficient J≈30 MeV is insensitive to the value x, whereas the surface symmetry coefficient ass and the coefficient asym(4) are very sensitive to the value of x in the range 1≤x≤4. The contribution of the asym(4) term increases rapidly with increasing isospin asymmetry I. For very neutron-rich nuclei, the contribution of the asym(4) term will play an important role.
Searching for high-K isomers in the proton-rich A~80 mass region
Zhi-Jun Bai, Chang-Feng Jiao, Yuan Gao, Fu-Rong Xu
2016, 40(9): 094102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/094102
Configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations have been performed to investigate the K isomerism in the proton-rich A~80 mass region. An abundance of high-K states are predicted. These high-K states arise from two and four-quasi-particle excitations, with Kπ=8+ and Kπ=16+, respectively. Their excitation energies are comparatively low, making them good candidates for long-lived isomers. Since most nuclei under study are prolate spheroids in their ground states, the oblate shapes of the predicted high-K states may indicate a combination of K isomerism and shape isomerism.
Effect of pre-equilibrium emission on probing postsaddle nuclear dissipation with neutrons
Jian Tian, Wei Ye
2016, 40(9): 094103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/094103
Using the stochastic Langevin model coupled with a statistical decay model, we study the influence of pre-equilibrium (PE) emission on probing postsaddle friction (β) with neutrons. A postsaddle friction value of (14-16.5)×1021 s-1 and (11-13)×1021 s-1 is obtained from comparing calculated and measured prescission neutron multiplicities of heavy fissioning systems 248Fm and 256Fm in the absence and presence of the deformation factor. Moreover, it is found that a larger β is required to fit multiplicity data after the PE effect is accounted for, and that the effect becomes stronger when more energy is removed by PE particles. Our findings suggest that, to more accurately determine the postsaddle friction strength through the measurement of prescission neutrons, in addition to incorporating the contribution of PE evaporation source into the experimental multi-source analysis for particle energy spectra in coincidence with fission fragments, on the theoretical side, it is very important to make a precise evaluation of the energy that PE emission carries away from excited compound systems produced in heavy-ion fusion reactions.
Systematic study of the product ((E(22+)/E(21+))*B(E2)↑) through the asymmetric rotor model
Parveen Kumari, H. M. Mittal
2016, 40(9): 094104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/094104
A systematic study of the product ((E(22+)/E(21+))*B(E2)↑) is carried out in the major shell space Z=50-82, N=82-126 within the framework of the asymmetric rotor model where the asymmetry parameter γ0 reflects change in the nuclear structure. A systematic study of the product ((E(22+)/E(21+))*B(E2)↑) with neutron number N is also discussed. The product ((E(22+)/E(21+))*B(E2)↑) provides a direct correlation with the asymmetry parameter γ0. The effect of subshells is visible in Ba-Gd nuclei with N>82, but not in Hf-Pt nuclei with N>104. We study, for the first time, the dependency of the product ((E(22+)/E(21+))*B(E2)↑) on the asymmetry parameter γ0.
Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics and Cosmology
Evolving Horava cosmological horizons
Mohsen Fathi, Morteza Mohseni
2016, 40(9): 095101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/095101
Several sets of radially propagating null congruence generators are exploited in order to form 3-dimensional marginally trapped surfaces, referred to as black hole and cosmological apparent horizons in a Hořava universe. Based on this method, we deal with the characteristics of the 2-dimensional space-like spheres of symmetry and the peculiarities of having trapping horizons. Moreover, we apply this method in standard expanding and contracting FLRW cosmological models of a Hořava universe to investigate the conditions under which the extra parameters of the theory may lead to trapped/anti-trapped surfaces both in the future and in the past. We also include the cases of negative time, referred to as the finite past, and discuss the formation of anti-trapped surfaces inside the cosmological apparent horizons.
Spontaneous magnetization of solid quark-cluster stars
Xiao-Yu Lai, Ren-Xin Xu
2016, 40(9): 095102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/095102
Pulsar-like compact stars usually have strong magnetic fields, with strengths from ~108 to ~1012 G on the surface. How such strong magnetic fields can be generated and maintained is still an unsolved problem, which is, in principle, related to the interior structure of compact stars, i.e., the equation of state of cold matter at supra-nuclear density. In this paper we are trying to solve the problem in the regime of solid quark-cluster stars. Inside quark-cluster stars, the extremely low ratio of number density of electrons to that of baryons ne/nb and the screening effect from quark-clusters could reduce the long-range Coulomb interaction between electrons to short-range interaction. In this case, Stoner's model could apply, and we find that the condition for ferromagnetism is consistent with that for the validity of Stoner's model. Under the screened Coulomb repulsion, the electrons inside the stars could be spontaneously magnetized and become ferromagnetic, and hence would contribute non-zero net magnetic momentum to the whole star. We conclude that, for most cases in solid quark-cluster stars, the amount of net magnetic momentum, which is proportional to the amount of unbalanced spins ξ=(n+-n-)/ne and depends on the number density of electrons ne=n+-n-, could be significant with non-zero ξ. The net magnetic moments of electron system in solid quark-cluster stars could be large enough to induce the observed magnetic fields for pulsars with B1011 to ~B1013 G.
Detectors, Related Electronics and Experimental Methods
Measurement of the dead layer thickness in a p-type point contact germanium detector
Hao Jiang, Qian Yue, Yu-Lan Li, Ke-Jun Kang, Yuan-Jing Li, Jin Li, Shin-Ted Lin, Shu-Kui Liu, Hao Ma, Jing-Lu Ma, Jian Su, Henry Tsz-King Wong, Li-Tao Yang, Wei Zhao, Zhi Zeng
2016, 40(9): 096001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096001
A 994 g mass p-type PCGe detector has been deployed during the first phase of the China Dark matter EXperiment, aiming at direct searches for light weakly interacting massive particles. Measuring the thickness of the dead layer of a p-type germanium detector is an issue of major importance since it determines the fiducial mass of the detector. This work reports a method using an uncollimated 133Ba source to determine the dead layer thickness. The experimental design, data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation processes, as well as the statistical and systematic uncertainties are described. A dead layer thickness of 1.02 mm was obtained based on a comparison between the experimental data and the simulated results.
PMT overshoot study for the JUNO prototype detector
Feng-Jiao Luo, Yue-Kun Heng, Zhi-Min Wang, Pei-Liang Wang, Zhong-Hua Qin, Mei-Hang Xu, Dong-Hao Liao, Hai-Qiong Zhang, Yong-Bo Huang, Xiang-Cui Lei, Sen Qian, Shu-Lin Liu, Yuan-Bo Chen, Yi-Fang Wang
2016, 40(9): 096002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096002
The quality of PMT signals is crucial for large-size and high-precision neutrino experiments, but most of these experiments are affected by the overshoot of PMT signals from the positive HV-single cable scheme. Overshoot affects the trigger, dead time and charge measurement from a detector. For the JUNO prototype detector, we have performed a detailed study and calculation on PMT signal overshoot to control the ratio of overshoot to signal amplitude to ~1%, with no effect on other PMT parameters.
Construction and cosmic-ray test of the new inner drift chamber for BESIII
Yong-ji Xie, Zhong-hua Qin, Xiao-yan Ma, Jian Zhang, Ling-hui Wu, Wan Xie, Ming-yi Dong, Jing Dong, Xiao-lu Ji, Xiao-shan Jiang, Qun Ou-yang, Ke-jun Zhu, Yuan-bo Chen
2016, 40(9): 096003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096003
A new inner drift chamber has been built which can replace the aged part of the BESⅢ drift chamber when needed. The design of the new inner drift chamber can minimize the ineffective area in the very forward and backward region and hence reduce the background event rate. With this design, the new inner drift chamber is expected to have a longer lifetime and improved performance due to the lower occupancy. The endplates and the cylinder were machined with high precision. Wire stringing was performed after the mechanical structure was assembled, and good quality of wire stringing was ensured by measurement of the tension and leakage current of the wires. After completion of the physical construction of the new chamber, a cosmic-ray test was carried out to test its performance. The results of the cosmic-ray test show that the new inner chamber achieves a spatial resolution of 127 μ and a dE/dx resolution of 6.4%, which satisfies the design specifications.
Detection efficiency evaluation for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector
Yi-ming Wang, Yang Tian, Yi-gang Yang, Ren Liu, Jing-sheng Pan, Xue-wu Wang, Zhi Zhang
2016, 40(9): 096004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096004
In this paper, the detection efficiency of a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector has been evaluated. A 6LiF/ZnS scintillator detector 65 mm in diameter and 0.32 mm in thickness, with product code, EJ426HD2, produced by Eljen Technology, was employed as the benchmark detector. The TOF spectra of these two detectors were simultaneously measured and the energy spectra were then deduced to calculate the detection efficiency curve of the nMCP detector. Tests show the detection efficiency@25.3 meV thermal neutrons is 34% for this nMCP detector.
Fast control latency uncertainty elimination for the BESIII ETOF upgrade
Yun Wang, Ping Cao, Shu-bin Liu, Qi An
2016, 40(9): 096101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096101
A new fanning topology is proposed to precisely fan out fast control signals in the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII) end-cap time-of-flight (ETOF) electronics. However, uncertainty in transfer latency is introduced by the new fanning channel, which will degrade the precision of fast control. In this paper, latency uncertainty elimination for the BESIII ETOF upgrade is introduced. The latency uncertainty is determined by a Time-Digital-Converter (TDC) embedded in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and is eliminated by re-capturing at synchronous and determinate time. Compared with the existing method of Barrel-cap TOF (BTOF), it has advantages of flexible structure, easy calibration and good adaptability. Field tests on the BESIII ETOF system show that this method effectively eliminates transfer latency uncertainty.
Development of a portable and fast wire tension measurement system for MWPC construction
Jing-Hui Pan, Chang-Li Ma, Xue-Yu Gong, Zhi-Jia Sun, Yan-Feng Wang, Chen-Yan Yin, Lei Gong
2016, 40(9): 096201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096201
In a multi-wire proportional chamber detector (MWPC), the anode and signal wires must maintain suitable tension, which is very important for the detector's stable and accurate performance. As a result, wire tension control and measurement is essential in MWPC construction. A high pressure 3He MWPC detector is to be used as the thermal neutron detector of the multi-functional reflectometer at China Spallation Neutron Source, and in the construction of the detector, we have developed a wire tension measurement system. This system is accurate, portable and time-saving. With it, the wire tension on an anode wire plane has been tested. The measurement results show that the wire tension control techniques used in detector manufacture are reliable.
Laboratory measurement of radioactivity purification for 212Pb in liquid scintillator
Wei Hu, Jian Fang, Bo-Xiang Yu, Xuan Zhang, Li Zhou, Xiao Cai, Li-Jun Sun, Wan-Jin Liu, Lan Wang, Jun-Guang Lü
2016, 40(9): 096202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096202
Liquid scintillator (LS) has been widely used in past and running neutrino experiments, and is expected also to be used in future experiments. Requirements on LS radio-purity have become higher and higher. Water extraction is a powerful method to remove soluble radioactive nuclei, and a mini-extraction station has been constructed. To evaluate the extraction efficiency and optimize the operation parameters, a setup to load radioactivity to LS and a laboratory scale setup to measure radioactivity using the 212Bi-212Po-208Pb cascade decay have been developed. Experience from this laboratory study will be useful for the design of large scale water extraction plants and the optimization of working conditions in the future.
Track segment finding with CGEM-IT and matching to outer drift chamber tracks in the BESIII detector
Xin-Hua Sun, Liang-Liang Wang, Ling-Hui Wu, Xu-Dong Ju, Qing-Lei Xiu, Liao-Yuan Dong, Ming-Yi Dong, Wei-Dong Li, Wei-Guo Li, Huai-Min Liu, Qun Ou-Yang, Ye Yuan, Yao Zhang
2016, 40(9): 096203. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096203
The relative differences in coordinates of Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier Detector-based Inner Tracker (CGEM-IT) clusters are studied to search for track segments in CGEM-IT for the BESIII experiment. With the full simulation of single muon track samples, clear patterns are found and parameterized for the correct cluster combinations. The cluster combinations satisfying the patterns are selected as track segment candidates in CGEM-IT with an efficiency higher than 99%. The parameters of the track segments are obtained by a helix fitting. Some χ2 quantities, evaluating the differences in track parameters between the track segments in CGEM-IT and the tracks found in the outer drift chamber, are calculated and used to match them. Proper χ2 requirements are determined as a function of transverse momentum and the matching efficiency is found to be reasonable.
Dead cell and side leakage correction for a lead-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter
Cheng Zhang, Zu-Hao Li, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Suzan Basegmez du Pree, Shao-Wen Zhang, Xue-Qiang Wang, Min Yang, Guo-Ming Chen, He-Sheng Chen
2016, 40(9): 096204. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/096204
The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is one of the key detectors for dark matter searches. It measures the energies of electrons, positrons and photons and seperates them from hadrons. Currently, there are 5 dead cells in the ECAL, which affect the reconstructed energy of 4.2% of total events in the ECAL acceptance. When an electromagnetic shower axis is close to the ECAL border, due to the side leakage, the reconstructed energy is affected as well. In this paper, methods for dead cells and side leakage corrections for the ECAL energy reconstruction are presented. For events with the shower axis crossing dead cells, applying dead cell correction improves the difference in the reconstructed energy from 12% to 1%, while for events near the ECAL border, with side leakage correction it is improved from 4% to 1%.
Tuner control system of Spoke012 SRF cavity for C-ADS injector I
Na Liu, Yi Sun, Guang-Wei Wang, Zheng-Hui Mi, Hai-Ying Lin, Qun-Yao Wang, Rong Liu, Xin-Peng Ma
2016, 40(9): 097001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/097001
A new tuner control system for spoke superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities has been developed and applied to cryomodule I of the C-ADS injector I at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We have successfully implemented the tuner controller based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for the first time and achieved a cavity tuning phase error of ± 0.7° (about ± 4 Hz peak to peak) in the presence of electromechanical coupled resonance. This paper presents preliminary experimental results based on the PLC tuner controller under proton beam commissioning.
Transverse beam size measurement system using visible synchrotron radiation at HLS Ⅱ
Kai Tang, Bao-Gen Sun, Yong-Liang Yang, Ping Lu, Lei-Lei Tang, Fang-Fang Wu, Chao-Cai Cheng, Jia-Jun Zheng, Hao Li
2016, 40(9): 097002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/097002
An interferometer system and an imaging system using visible synchrotron radiation (SR) have been installed in the Hefei Light Source (HLS) Ⅱ storage ring. Simulations of these two systems are given using Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) code. With these two systems, the beam energy spread and the beam emittance can be measured. A detailed description of these two systems and the measurement method is given in this paper. The measurement results of beam size, emittance and energy spread are given at the end.
Design study for a 500 MeV proton synchrotron with CSNS linac as an injector
Liang-Sheng Huang, Hong-Fei Ji, Sheng Wang
2016, 40(9): 097003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/097003
Using the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac as the injector, a 500 MeV proton synchrotron is proposed for multidisciplinary applications, such as biology, material science and proton therapy. The synchrotron will deliver proton beam with energy from 80 MeV to 500 MeV. A compact lattice design has been worked out, and all the important beam dynamics issues have been investigated. The 80 MeV H- beam is stripped and injected into the synchrotron by using multi-turn injection. In order to continuously extraction the proton with small beam loss, an achromatic structure is proposed and a slow extraction method with RF knock-out is adopted and optimized.
Physical design study of the CEPC booster
Chuang Zhang
2016, 40(9): 097004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/097004
A physical design study of the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) booster is reported. The booster provides 120 GeV electron and positron beams for the CEPC collider with top-up injection. The booster is mounted above the collider in the same tunnel. To save cost, the energy of the linac injector for the booster is chosen as 6 GeV, corresponding to a magnetic field of 30.7 Gs. In this paper, the booster lattice is described and optimization of the cell length is discussed. A novel scheme of bypass near the detector of the collider is designed. The extremely low magnetic field caused by low injection energy is studied, and a new ideal of wiggling bands is proposed to mitigate the low-field problem. Beam transfer and injection from the linac to the booster are considered.
Ground motion improvements in SPEAR3
James A. Safranek, Yiton T. Yan, Domenico Dell'Orco, Georg Gassner, Nikita Sunilkumar
2016, 40(9): 097005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/097005
SPEAR3 is a third-generation synchrotron light source storage ring, about 234 meters in circumference. To meet the beam stability requirement, our goal is to ultimately achieve an orbit variation (relative to the photon beam lines) of less than 10% of the beam size, which is about 1 micron in the vertical plane. Hydrostatic leveling system (HLS) measurements show that the height of the SPEAR3 tunnel floor can vary by tens of microns daily without thermal insulation improvements. We present an analysis of the HLS data that shows that adding thermal insulation to the concrete walls of the storage ring tunnel dramatically decreased diurnal tunnel floor motion.
Optimization of the collimation system for CSNS/RCS with the robust conjugate direction search algorithm
Hong-Fei Ji, Yi Jiao, Ming-Yang Huang, Shou-Yan Xu, Na Wang, Sheng Wang
2016, 40(9): 097006. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/097006
The Robust Conjugate Direction Search (RCDS) method is used to optimize the collimation system for the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The parameters of secondary collimators are optimized for a better performance of the collimation system. To improve the efficiency of the optimization, the Objective Ring Beam Injection and Tracking (ORBIT) parallel module combined with MATLAB parallel computing is used, which can run multiple ORBIT instances simultaneously. This study presents a way to find an optimal parameter combination of the secondary collimators for a machine model in preparation for CSNS/RCS commissioning.
Synchrotron Radiation, Free Electron Lasers, Applications of Nuclear Technology, etc
Fully coherent hard X-ray generation by two-stage phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation
Guang-Lei Wang, Wei-Qing Zhang, Xue-Ming Yang, Chao Feng, Hai-Xiao Deng
2016, 40(9): 098101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/098101
Cascading stages of seeded free electron lasers (FELs) is a promising way to produce fully coherent X-ray radiation. We study a new approach to produce coherent hard X-rays by cascading the recently proposed phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG) The scheme consists of one dogleg and two PEHG configurations, and may be one of the leading candidates for the extracted undulator branch in future X-ray FEL facilities. FEL physics studies show that such a scheme is feasible within the present technology and can provide high brightness X-ray radiation pulses with narrow bandwidth and full coherence The radiated peak power at 1 Å wavelength converted from an initial 200 nm seed laser is over 2 GW.
Self-seeded FEL wavelength extension with high-gain harmonic generation
2016, 40(9): 098102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/098102
We study a self-seeded high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL) scheme to extend the wavelength of a soft X-ray FEL. This scheme uses a regular self-seeding monochromator to generate a seed laser at the wavelength of 1.52 nm, followed by a HGHG configuration to produce coherent, narrow-bandwidth harmonic radiations at the GW level. The 2nd and 3rd harmonic radiation is investigated with start-to-end simulations. Detailed studies of the FEL performance and shot-to-shot fluctuations are presented.
Retraction Notice: “High power acceleration of an HSC type injector for cancer therapy”, Chin. Phys. C 40(7) 077001
2016, 40(9): 099101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/9/099101
This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief, in accordance with our policy on publishing ethics.
The article is largely a duplicate publication of a paper already published by the same authors in Physical Review Special Topics -Accelerators and Beams as "High power test of an injector linac for heavy ion cancer therapy facilities" (Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 18, 111002, DOI 10.1103/Phys-RevSTAB.18.111002). The main results and much of the text are identical. The lead author, Dr Liang Lu, submitted this article to Chin. Phys. C while the Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams article was still in the peer review process. Each journal then accepted the respective submissions, with the article published in Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams before Chin. Phys. C. During submission, authors explicitly declare that the work is original and is not published or under consideration for publication elsewhere. This publication is therefore a serious breach of scientific publishing ethics. The Editorial Board of Chin. Phys. C treats such matters extremely seriously, and hereby retracts this article.
Dr Liang Lu takes full responsibility for this matter, and apologises for his behaviour. The Editors apologise to our readers that this was not detected earlier in the publication process.