2014 Vol. 38, No. 5
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In an extension of the standard model, where baryon number and lepton number are local gauge symmetries, we analyze the effect of corrections from exotic fermions and scalars on the oblique parameters S, T, U. Because a light neutral Higgs h0 with mass around 124—126GeV strongly constrains the corresponding parameter space of this model, we also investigate the gluon fusion process gg→h0 and two photon decay of the lightest neutral Higgs h0→γγ at the Large Hadron Collider.
The initial single pion emission (ISPE) mechanism is applied to the processes Υ(5S)→πB(*) (*), whose details have been recently reported at ICHEP2012, and we obtain reasonable agreement with Bell's measurements; that is, we succeed in reproducing the enhancement structures of Zb(10610) and Zb(10650). Inspired by this success, we also predict the corresponding enhancement structures in open charm one-pion decays of higher charmonia near the thresholds of D* and D* *.
The prompt fission neutron spectra for the neutron-induced fission of 233U for low energy neutrons (below 6 MeV) are calculated using nuclear evaporation theory with a semi-empirical method, in which the partition of the total excitation energy between the fission fragments for the nth+233U fission reactions is determined by the available experimental and evaluation data. The calculated prompt fission neutron spectra agree well with the experimental data. The proportions of high-energy neutrons of prompt fission neutron spectrum versus incident neutron energies are investigated with the theoretical spectra, and the results are consistent with the systematics. The semi-empirical method could be a useful tool for the prompt evaluation of fission neutron spectra.
Starting from the Kubo formula and the QCD low energy theorem, we study the the bulk viscosity of hot dense quark matter in the PNJL model from the equation of state. We show that the bulk viscosity has a sharp peak near the chiral phase transition, and that the ratio of bulk viscosity over entropy rises dramatically in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results agree with those from the lattice and other model calculations. In addition, we show that the increase of chemical potential raises the bulk viscosity.
PACIAE, a parton and hadron cascade model, is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production and strangeness enhancement in Au+Au collisions and in Pb+Pb collisions with the √sNN=200 GeV at the RHIC and 2.76 TeV at the LHC, respectively. The experimental results at different centralities, using data from the STAR collaboration and the ALICE collaboration, are well described by the PACIAE model. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism for strange quark suppression, that are implemented in the PACIAE model.
Using relativistic mean field theory, the neutron and the proton density distribution of 56Ni nuclei could be obtained in the ground state and the excited state. Based on the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model, the 56Ni nuclei have been simulated in ground state and in the neutron or proton excited state. We then used the three different states of 56Ni to collide with the 56Ni in the ground state. To discuss the evolution of the nuclear stopping in different reactions, two kinds of different excited nuclear reactions were studied at different reaction energies and at different impact parameters. Studies have shown that the nuclear stopping of an excited nuclear reaction is sensitive to the isospin-dependent in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section, compared with the response value of the ground state nuclear reaction. So, it is better for the excited nuclei to extract the isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section information.
The state of super-dense matter is essential for us to understand the nature of pulsars; however, non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics makes it very difficult to make direct calculations of the state of cold matter at realistic baryon number densities inside compact stars. Nevertheless, from an observational point of view, it is conjectured that pulsars could be made up of quark clusters since the strong coupling between quarks might render the quarks to be grouped in clusters. In this paper, we attempt to find an equation of state of condensed quark-cluster matter in a phenomenological way. Supposing that the quark-clusters could be analogized to inert gases, we apply here the corresponding-state approach to derive the equation of state of quark-cluster matter, as was similarly demonstrated for nuclear and neutron-star matter in the 1970s. According to the calculations that we have presented, the quark-cluster stars, which are composed of quark-cluster matter, could have a high maximum mass that is consistent with observations and, in turn, further observations of pulsar mass could also place a constraint on the properties of quark-cluster matter. We will also briefly discuss the melting heat during the solid-liquid phase conversion and its related astrophysical consequences.
A new simple digital positron lifetime spectrometer has been developed. It includes a DRS4 waveform digitizing board and two scintillation detectors based on the XP2020Q photomultiplier tubes and LaBr3 scintillators. The DRS4 waveform digitizing can handle small pulses, down to few tens of millivolts, and its time scale linearity and stability are very good. The new system has reached a 206 ps time resolution, which is better than the conventional analog apparatus using the same detectors. These improvements make this spectrometer more simple and convenient in comparison with other spectrometers, and it can be applied to the other scintillation timing measurements with picosecond accuracy.
The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation.
In this paper, the performance of a type of domestic THGEM (THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier) working in Ar/CO2 mixtures is reported in detail. This kind of single THGEM can provide a gain range from 100 to 1000, which is very suitable for application in neutron detection. In order to study its basic characteristics as a reference for the development of a THGEM based neutron detector, the counting rate plateau, the energy resolution and the gain of the THGEM have been measured in different Ar/CO2 mixtures with a variety of electrical fields. For the Ar/CO2(90%/10%) gas mixture, a wide counting rate plateau is achieved from 720 V to 770 V, with a plateau slope of 2.4%/100 V, and an excellent energy resolution of about 22% is obtained at the 5.9 keV full energy peak of the 55Fe X-ray source.
A simulation study has been performed to quantify the effect of volume reduction on the thyroid absorbed dose per decay and to investigate the variation of energy deposition per decay due to β-and γ-activity of 131I with volume/mass of thyroid, for water, ICRP-and ICRU-soft tissue taken as thyroid material. A Monte Carlo model of the thyroid, in the Geant4 radiation transport simulation toolkit was constructed to compute the β-and γ-absorbed dose in the simulated thyroid phantom for various values of its volume. The effect of the size and shape of the thyroid on energy deposition per decay has also been studied by using spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindrical models for the thyroid and varying its volume in 1—25 cm3 range. The relative differences of Geant4 results for different models with each other and MCNP results lie well below 1.870%. The maximum relative difference among the Geant4 estimated results for water with ICRP and ICRU soft tissues is not more than 0.225%. S-values for ellipsoidal, spherical and cylindrical thyroid models were estimated and the relative difference with published results lies within 3.095%. The absorbed fraction values for beta particles show a good agreement with published values within 2.105% deviation. The Geant4 based simulation results of absorbed fractions for gammas again show a good agreement with the corresponding MCNP and EGS4 results (± 6.667%) but have 29.032% higher values than that of MIRD calculated values. Consistent with previous studies, the reduction of the thyroid volume is found to have a substantial effect on the absorbed dose. Geant4 simulations confirm dose dependence on the volume/mass of thyroid in agreement with MCNP and EGS4 computed values but are substantially different from MIRD8 data. Therefore, inclusion of size/mass dependence is indicated for 131I radiotherapy of the thyroid.
The performance of a double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD), which is used for the position and energy detection of heavy ions, is reported. The analysis shows that although the incomplete charge collection (ICC) and charge sharing (CS) effects of the DSSSD give rise to a loss of energy resolution, the position information is recorded without ambiguity. Representations of ICC/CS events in the energy spectra are shown and their origins are confirmed by correlation analysis of the spectra from both the junction side and ohmic side of the DSSSD.
The Neighbor Cell Deposited Energy Ratio (NCDER) is a new method that is proposed to reconstruct incidence position in a single layer for a 3-dimensional imaging electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL). This method was applied to reconstruct the ECAL test beam data for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02). The results show that this method can achieve an angular resolution of 7.36±0.08°/√E⊕0.28±0.02° in the determination of the photon's direction, which is much more precise than that obtained with the commonly-adopted Center of Gravity (COG) method (8.4±0.1°/√E⊕0.8±0.3°). Furthermore, since it uses only the properties of electromagnetic showers, this new method could also be used for other type of fine grain sampling calorimeters.
To test superconducting cavities, a vertical test system has been designed and set up at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP). The system design is based on VCO-PLL hardware and the NI Labview software. The test of the HWR010#2 superconducting cavity shows that the function of this test system is satisfactory for testing the low frequency cavity.
Peking University is designing a new SRF gun that is composed of a quarter wave resonator (QWR) and an elliptical cavity. Compared to the elliptical cavity, the QWR is sufficiently compact at the same frequency and its electric field is quasi-DC. The RF parameters are determined by optimization of QWR cavity structure and the possible multipacting locations are analyzed by 2D MP simulation. The simulation results show that multipacting is not a critical issue for our optimized cavity structure.
A new ion source has been designed and manufactured for the CYCLONE30 accelerator, which has a much advanced performance compared with the original. It is expected that the newly designed ion source extraction system will transport a very large percentage of the beam without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver an H- beam at 30 keV. The accelerator assembly consists of three circular aperture electrodes made of copper. The simulation study was focused on finding parameter sets that raise the beam perveance as large as possible and which reduce the beam divergence as low as possible. Ion beams of the highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence is minimum, for which the perveance current intensity and the extraction gap have optimum values. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software (for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that it is possible to achieve this goal by decreasing the thickness of the plasma electrode, shortening the first gap, and adjusting the acceleration electrode voltage.
We present the analytical and simulated results of our study of the influence of the acceleration gradient in the velocity bunching process, which is a bunch compression scheme that uses a travelling wave accelerating structure as a compressor. Our study shows that the bunch compression application with low acceleration gradient is more tolerant to phase jitter and more successful in obtaining a compressed electron beam with symmetrical longitudinal distribution and low energy spread. We also present a transverse emittance compensation scheme to compensate the emittance growth caused by the increase of the space charge force in the compressing process, which is easy to adjust for different compression factors.
The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.
In order to meet the requirements of the synchrotron radiation users, a fully coherent VUV free electron laser (FEL) has been preliminarily designed. One important goal of this design is that the radiation wavelength can be easily tuned in a broad range (70—170 nm). In the light of the users' demand and our actual conditions, the self-seeding scheme is adopted for this proposal. Firstly, we attempted to fix the electron energy and only changed the undulator gap to vary the radiation wavelength; however, our analysis implies that this is difficult because of the great difference of the power gain length and FEL efficiency at different wavelengths. Therefore, we have considered dividing the wavelength range into three subareas. In each subarea, a constant electron energy is used and the wavelength tuning is realized only by adjusting the undulator gap. The simulation results show that this scheme has an acceptable performance.
Our new method makes use of a CAD-based automatic modeling tool, MCAM, for geometry modeling and ray tracing of particle transport in method of characteristics (MOC). It was found that it could considerably enhance the capability of MOC to deal with more complicated models for neutron transport calculation. In our study, the diamond-difference scheme was applied to MOC to reduce the spatial discretization errors of the flat flux approximation. Based on MCAM and MOC, a new 2D MOC code was developed and integrated into the SuperMC system, which is a Super Multi-function Computational system for neutronics and radiation simulation. The numerical results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the new method for neutron transport calculation in MOC.
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