2013 Vol. 37, No. 2

Particle and field theory
An approximate solution of the DKP equation under the Hulthén vector potential
S. Zarrinkamar, A. A. Rajabi, B. H. Yazarloo, H. Hassanabadi
2013, 37(2): 023101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/023101
Using the analytical NU technique as well as an acceptable physical approximation to the centrifugal term, the bound-state solutions of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation are obtained for arbitrary quantum numbers. The solutions appear in terms of the Jacobi Polynomials. Various explanatory figures and tables are included to complete the study.
Mixing between the 23S1 and 13D1 Ds
YUAN Ling, CHEN Bing, ZHANG Ai-Lin
2013, 37(2): 023102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/023102
Mixing between the 23S1 and 13D1 Ds is studied within the 3P0 model. If mixing between these two 1- states exists, Ds1*(2700)± and DsJ*(2860)± could be interpreted as the two orthogonal mixed states with mixing angle θ≈ -80° in the case of a special β for each meson. However, in the case of a universal β for all mesons, Ds1*(2700)± could be interpreted as the mixed state of 23S1 and 13D1 with mixing angle 12° < θ < 21° but DsJ*(2860)± seems difficult to interpret as the orthogonal partner of Ds1*(2700)±.
Properties of bottomonium in a semi-relativistic model
Bhaghyesh, K. B. Vijaya Kumar
2013, 37(2): 023103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/023103
Using a semi-relativistic potential model we investigate the spectra and decays of the bottomonium (bb) system. The Hamiltonian of our model consists of a relativistic kinetic energy term, a vector Coulomb-like potential and a scalar confining potential. Using this Hamiltonian, we obtain a spinless wave equation, which is then reduced to the form of a single particle Schrodinger equation. The spin dependent potentials are introduced as a perturbation. The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator wave function is employed as a trial wave function and the bbmass spectrum is obtained by the variational method. The model parameters and the wave function that reproduce the the bbspectrum are then used to investigate some of their decay properties. The results obtained are then compared with the experimental data and with the predictions of other theoretical models.
Study of the behavior of the nuclear modification factor in freeze-out state
M. K. Suleymanov, K. H. Khan, A. Zaman
2013, 37(2): 024101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/024101
One of the latest trends in the advancement of experimental high-energy physics is to identify the quark gluon plasma (QGP) predicted qualitatively by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We discuss whether nuclear transparency effect which is considered an important phenomenon, connected with dynamics of hadron-nuclear and nuclear-nuclear interactions could reflect some particular properties of the medium. FASTMC is used for Au-Au collision at RHIC energies. Critical change in the transparency is considered a signal on the appearance of new phases of strongly interacting matter and the QGP.
Symmetry energy from neutron-rich fragments in heavy-ion collisions, and its dependence on incident energy, and impact parameters
MA Chun-Wang, SONG Heng-Li, PU Jie, ZHANG Tong-Lin, ZHANG Sha, WANG Shan-Shan, ZHAO Xin-Li, CHEN Li
2013, 37(2): 024102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/024102
The yields of fragments produced in the 60Ni+12C reactions at 80 A and 140 A MeV, and with maximum impact parameters of 1.5, 2 and 7.3 fm at 80 A MeV are calculated by the statistical abrasion-ablation model. The yields of fragments are analyzed by the isobaric yield ratio (IYR) method to extract the coefficient of symmetry energy to temperature (asym/T). The incident energy is found to influence asym/T very little. It's found that asym/T of fragments with the same neutron-excess I=N-Z increases when A increases, while asym/T of isobars decreases when A increases. The asym/T of prefragments is rather smaller than that of the final fragments, and the asym/T of fragments in small impact parameters is smaller than that of the larger impact parameters, which both indicate that asym/T decreases when the temperature increases. The choice of the reference IYRs is found to have influence on the extracted asym/T of fragments, especially on the results of the more neutron-rich fragments. The surface-symmetry energy coefficient (bs/T) and the volume-symmetry energy coefficient (bv/T) are also extracted, and the bs/bv is found to coincide with the theoretical results.
particle and nuclear astrophysics and cosmology
A dynamical approach to the exterior geometry of a perfect fluid as a relativistic star
Mohsen Fathi
2013, 37(2): 025101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/025101
In this article, we assume that a cold charged perfect fluid is constructing a spherical relativistic star. Our purpose is the investigation of the dynamical properties of its exterior geometry, through simulating the geodesic motion of a charged test-particle, while moving on the star.
Detection Technology , Electronics and Methods
Performance of the muon detector A under TIBET Ⅲ array
LIU Cheng, BI Xiao-Jun, CHEN Tian-Lu
2013, 37(2): 026001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/026001
In order to observe gamma rays in the 100 TeV energy region, the 4500 m2 underground muon detector array using water Cherenkov technique is constructed, forming the TIBET Ⅲ+MD hybrid array. Because the showers induced by primary gamma rays contain much fewer muons than those induced by primary hadrons, significant improvement of the gamma ray sensitivity for TIBET Ⅲ+MD array is expected. In this paper, the design and performance of the MD-A detector with large Tyvek bag is reported.
Study of 2D interpolating readout for a micro-pattern gaseous detector
DONG Ming-Yi, XIU Qing-Lei, LIU Rong-Guang, ZHANG Jian, OUYANG Qun, CHEN Yuan-Bo
2013, 37(2): 026002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/026002
The two-dimensional interpolating readout, a new readout concept based on resistive anode structure, was studied for the micro-pattern gaseous detector. Within its high spatial resolution, the interpolating resistive readout structure leads to an enormous reduction of electronic channels compared with pure pixel devices, and also makes the detector more reliable and robust, which is attributed to its resistive anode relieving discharge. A GEM (gaseous electron multiplier) detector with 2D interpolating resistive readout structure was set up and the performance of the detector was studied with 55Fe 5.9 keV X-ray. The detector worked stably at the gain up to 3.5×104 without any discharge. An energy resolution of about 19%, and a spatial resolution of about 219 μ (FWHM) were reached, and good imaging performance was also obtained.
Simulation of large-scale fast neutron liquid scintillation detector
XING Hao-Yang, WANG Li, ZHU Jing-Jun, TANG Chang-Jian, YUE Qian
2013, 37(2): 026003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/026003
Neutron background measurement is always very important for dark matter detection due to almost the same effect for the recoiled nucleus scattered off by the incident neutron and dark matter particle. For deep under-ground experiments, the flux of neutron background is so low that large-scale detection is usually necessary. In this paper, by using Geant4, the relationship between detection efficiency and volume is investigated, meanwhile, two geometrical schemes for this detection including a single large-sized detector and arrayed multi-detector are compared under the condition of the same volume. The geometrical parameters of detectors are filtrated and detection efficiencies obtained under the similar background condition of China Jingping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The results show that for a large-scale Gd-doped liquid scintillation detector, the detection efficiency increases with the size of detector at the beginning and then trends toward a constant. Under the condition of the same length and cross section, the arrayed multi-detector has almost similar detection performance as the single large-sized detector, while too much detector number could cause degeneration of detection performance. Considering engineering factors, such as testing, assembling and production, the 4×4 arrayed detector scheme is flexible and more suitable. Furthermore, the conditions for using fast and slow signal coincidence detection and the detectable lower limit of neutron energy are evaluated by simulating the light process.
Design and performance study of the LEPD silicon tracker onboard the CSES satellite
WU Feng, WANG Huan-Yu, ZHAO Xiao-Yun, MENG Xiang-Cheng, XU Yan-Bing, WANG Hui, MA Yu-Qian, LU Hong, WANG Ping, SHI Feng, LI Xin-Qiao, JIANG Wen-Qi, AN Zhen-Hua, YU Xiao-Xia, LIU Han-Yi
2013, 37(2): 026004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/026004
The low energy particle detector (LEPD) is one of the main payloads onboard the China seismic electromagnetic satellite (CSES). The detector is designed to ascertain space electrons (0.1-10 MeV) and protons (2-50 MeV). It has the capability of identifying the electrons and protons, to measure the energy spectrum and the incident angle of the particles. The LEPD is made up of a silicon tracker system, a CsI (Tl) mini-calorimeter, an anti-coincidence system made by plastic scintillator, as well as electronics and a data acquisition system (DAQ). The tracker is also a kind of ΔE-E telescope; it consists of two layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSD). The signals emerging from the silicon tracker can be read out by two pieces of application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), which also can generate an event trigger for the LEPD. The functions of the DSSD system in the LEPD for charged particles were tested by 241Am @ 5.486 MeV α particles. The results show that the DSSD system works well, and has high performance to detect charged particles and measure the position of incident particles.
Correction of PMT position effect for a lead-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter
LI Zu-Hao, WANG Ling-Yu, XU Wei-Wei, CHEN Guo-Ming, CHEN He-Sheng
2013, 37(2): 026201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/026201
The position effect of the photoelectron multiplier tube (PMT) of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02) has been studied with beam-test data. The reconstructed deposited energy in a layer versus incidence position in the cell can be described by Gaussian distribution, maximum and minimum value can be obtained when the particle passes across the center and the edge of a cell respectively. The distribution can be used to correct the effect of incidence position on energy reconstruction. Much better energy resolution was acquired be got with the correction, for 100 GeV electrons, energy resolution improved from 3% to 2%.
Analytical determination of optimal luminosity for τ mass scan
WANG Bo-Qun, MO Xiao-Hu
2013, 37(2): 026202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/026202
Resorting to Hessian matrix, the analytical formula is obtained to determine the optimal luminosity proportion for the experiment of τ mass scan. Comparison of numerical results indicate the consistency between the present analytical evaluation and the previous computation based on the sampling technique.
Electromagnetic design and optimization of a superconducting quarter wave resonator
YANG Liu, LU Xiang-Yang, QUAN Sheng-Wen, YAO Zhong-Yuan, LUO Xing, ZHOU Kui
2013, 37(2): 027001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/027001
Superconducting (SC) cavities currently used for the acceleration of protons at a low velocity range are based on half wave resonators. Due to the rising demand on high current, the issue of beam loading and space charge problems has arisen. Qualities of low cost and high accelerating efficiency are required for SC cavities, which are properly fitted by using an SC quarter wave resonator (QWR). We propose a concept of using QWRs with frequency 162.5 MHz to accelerate high current proton beams. The electromagnetic design and optimization of the prototype have been finished at Peking University. An analytical model derived by the transmission line theory is used to predict an optimal combination of the geometrical parameters, with which the calculation by Microwave Studio shows a good agreement. The thermal analysis to identify the temperature rise of the demountable bottom plate under various levels of thermal contact also has been done, and the maximum increment is less than 0.5 K even though the contact state is poor.
Design study of the SSC-LINAC re-buncher
SUN Lie-Peng, ZHAO Hong-Wei, SUN Zhou-Ping, HE Yuan, SHI Ai-Min, XIAO Chen, DU Xiao-Nan, ZHANG Cong, ZHANG Zhou-Li
2013, 37(2): 027002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/027002
A re-buncher with spiral arms for a heavy ion linear accelerator named as SSC-LINAC at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou) has been constructed. The re-buncher, which is used for beam longitudinal modulation and matching between the RFQ and DTL, is designed to be operated in continuous wave (CW) mode at the Medium-Energy Beam-Transport (MEBT) line to maintain the beam intensity and quality. Because of the longitudinal space limitation, the re-buncher has to be very compact and will be built with four gaps. We determined the key parameters of the re-buncher cavity from the simulations using Microwave Studio software, such as the resonant frequency, the quality factor Q and the shunt impedance. The detailed design of a 53.667 MHz spiral cavity and measurement results of its prototype will be presented.
Observation of optical transition radiation from electron beams generated by laser plasma accelerator
LIN Chen, Van Tilborg, GUO Zhi-Yu
2013, 37(2): 027003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/027003
Laser plasma accelerators (LPAs) have made great progress, achieving electron beam with energy up to 1 GeV from a centimeter scale capillary plasma waveguide. Here, we report the measurement of optical transition radiation (OTR) from the capillary-based LPA electron beams. Transition radiation images, produced by electrons passing through two separate foils (located at 2.3 m and 3.8 m away from the exit of the LPA) were recorded with a high resolution imaging system, respectively. Two magnetic quadrupole lenses were placed right after the capillary to focus and collimate the electron beams. Significant localized spikes appeared in the OTR images when the electron beam was focused by the magnetic quadrupole lenses, indicating the coherence of the radiation and the existence of ultrashort longitudinal structures inside the electron beam.
Design of proton beam optics to realize beam distribution transformation in C-ADS HTBT
WANG Xiang-Qi, LUO Huan-Li, HAO Hao, TANG Jing-Yu, LI Wei-Min, XU Hong-Liang
2013, 37(2): 027004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/027004
The linac to the transmuter beam transport line (LTBT) connecting the end of the linac to the spallation target is a critical sub-system in the accelerator driven system (ADS). It has the function of transporting the accelerated high power proton beam to the target with a beam footprint satisfying the special requirements of the minor actinide (MA) transmuter. In this paper, a preliminary conceptual design of the hurling magnet to transmuter beam transport section (HTBT), as a part of the LTBT, for the China ADS (C-ADS) system is proposed and developed. In this design, a novel hurling magnet with a two dimensional amplitude modulation (AM) of 1 kHz and scanning of more than 10 kHz at 360° in transverse directions is used to realize a 300 mm diameter uniform distribution of beam on target. The preliminary beam optics design of C-ADS HTBT optimized to minimize the beam loss on the vacuum chamber and the radiation damage caused by back-scattering neutrons will be reported.
Synchrotron radiation,applications of nuclear techniquees,etc
Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket teeth
XING Xue-Qing, GONG Yu, CAI Quan, MO Guang, DU Rong, CHEN Zhong-Jun, WU Zhong-Hua
2013, 37(2): 028001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/028001
The cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of cricket teeth are always interesting. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of a cricket tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. The interior of the tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points towards the top of the tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate randomly into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp is proposed and a detailed discussion is given in this paper.
Hard X-ray one dimensional nano-focusing at the SSRF using a WSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens
HUANG Qiu-Shi, LI Hao-Chuan, SONG Zhu-Qing, ZHU Jing-Tao, WANG Zhan-Shan, LI Ai-Guo, YAN Shuai, MAO Cheng-Wen, WANG Hua, YAN Fen, ZHANG Ling, YU Xiao-Han, LIU Peng, LI Ming
2013, 37(2): 028002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/028002
The multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is a novel diffraction optics which can realize nanometer focusing of hard X-rays with high efficiency. In this paper, a 7.9 μm-thick MLL with the outmost layer thickness of 15 nm is designed based on dynamical diffraction theory. The MLL is fabricated by first depositing the depth-graded multilayer using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering technology. Then, the multilayer sample is sliced, and both cross-sections are thinned and polished to a depth of 35-41 μ. The focusing property of the MLL is measured at the Shanghai Synchrotron Facility (SSRF). One-dimensional (1D) focusing resolutions of 205 nm and 221 nm are obtained at E=14 keV and 18 keV, respectively. It demonstrates that the fabricated MLL can focus hard X-rays into nanometer scale.
Determination of the calcium species in coal chars by Ca K-edge XANES analysis
LIU Li-Juan, LIU Hui-Jun, CUI Ming-Qi, HU Yong-Feng, ZHENG Lei, ZHAO Yi-Dong, MA Chen-Yan, XI Shi-Bo, YANG Dong-Liang, GUO Zhi-Ying, WANG Jie
2013, 37(2): 028003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/028003
Ca-based additives have been widely used as a sulfur adsorbent during coal pyrolysis and gasification. The Ca speciation and evolution during the pyrolysis of coal with Ca additives have attracted great attention. In this paper, Ca species in the coal chars prepared from the pyrolysis of Ca(OH)2 or CaCO3-added coals are studied by using Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structural spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that Ca(OH)2, CaSO4, CaS and CaO coexist in the Ca(OH)2-added chars, while Ca(OH)2 and CaSO4 are the main species in the Ca(OH)2-added chars. Besides, a carboxyl-bound Ca is also formed during both the pyrolysis for the Ca(OH)2-added and the CaCO3-added coals. A detailed discussion about the Ca speciation is given.
Solution of the effects of twinning in femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography
ZHOU Liang, LIU Peng, DONG Yu-Hui
2013, 37(2): 028101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/028101
With the development of the XFEL (X-ray free electron laser), high quality diffraction patterns from nanocrystals have been achieved. The nanocrystals with different sizes and random orientations are injected to the XFEL beams and the diffraction patterns can be obtained by the so-called "diffraction-and-destruction" mode. The recovery of orientations is one of the most critical steps in reconstructing the 3D structure of nanocrystals. There is already an approach to solve the orientation problem by using the automated indexing software in crystallography. However, this method cannot distinguish the twin orientations in the cases of the symmetries of Bravais lattices higher than the point groups. Here we propose a new method to solve this problem. The shape transforms of nanocrystals can be determined from all of the intensities around the diffraction spots, and then Fourier transformation of a single crystal cell is obtained. The actual orientations of the patterns can be solved by comparing the values of the Fourier transformations of the crystal cell on the intersections of all patterns. This so-called "multiple-common-line" method can distinguish the twin orientations in the XFEL diffraction patterns successfully.
Enhanced high gain harmonic generation scheme with negative dispersion
LI He-Ting, JIA Qi-Ka
2013, 37(2): 028102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/2/028102
The enhanced high gain harmonic generation (EHGHG) scheme has been proposed and shown to be able to significantly enhance the performance of HGHG FEL. In this paper we investigate the EHGHG scheme with negative dispersion. The bunching factor at the entrance of the radiator is analyzed, which indicates that the scheme with negative dispersion can further weaken the negative effect of the dispersive strength on the energy spread correction factor. The numerical results from GENESIS (3D-code) are presented, and are in good agreement with our analysis. Then we comparatively study the effects of the initial beam energy spread and the relative phase shift on the radiation power. The results show that the EHGHG scheme with negative dispersion has a larger tolerance on the initial beam energy spread and a nearly equal wide good region of the relative phase shift compared with the case of positive dispersion.