2011 Vol. 35, No. 12

Particle and field theory
Full lattice QCD study of the κ scalar meson
FU Zi-Wen, Carleton DeTar
2011, 35(12): 1079-1083. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/001
We studied the κ light scalar meson in 2+1 flavor full QCD with sufficiently light u and d quarks. Via lattice simulation we measured the correlators for the κ channel in the “Asqtad” improved staggered fermion formulation. After chiral extrapolation we obtained the mass of the κ meson with 826±119 MeV, which is within recent experimental values of 800-900 MeV. The simulations were carried out with the MILC 2+1 flavor gauge configurations at lattice spacing a ≈ 0.15 fm.
Casimir force on a piston at finite temperature in Randall-Sundrum models
2011, 35(12): 1084-1094. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/002
The Casimir effect for a three-parallel-plate system at finite temperature within the framework of five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum models is studied. In the case of the Randall-Sundrum model involving two branes we find that the Casimir force depends on the plate distance and temperature after one outer plate has been moved to a distant place. Further we discover that the sign of the reduced force is negative if the plate and piston are located close together, but the nature of reduced force becomes repulsive when the plate distance is not very small and finally the repulsive force vanishes with extremely large plate separation. A higher temperature causes a greater repulsive Casimir force. Within the framework of a one-brane scenario the reduced Casimir force between the piston and one plate remains attractive no matter how high the temperature is. It is interesting that a stronger thermal effect leads to a greater attractive Casimir force instead of changing the nature of the force.
Nuclear and ion Physics
Analysis of shower particle pseudorapidity spectra in interactions of relativistic Au and Pb ions with emulsion nuclei
Ali Zaman
2011, 35(12): 1095-1099. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/003
The pseudorapidity spectra of fast particles (with β > 0.7 ) produced in Au (at 11.6 A GeV) and Pb (at 158 A GeV) induced collisions with emulsion (Em) nuclei contain some visual plateaus and shoulders. The plateau is wider for Pb+Em reactions compared with the Au+Em ones. The existence of a plateau is expected for parton models. The Fourier transformation and maximum entropy methods were used to get additional information about the plateaus. The dependence of the plateaus on the centrality of the collisions was also studied using the number of g-particles to fix centrality. It shows that the maximum entropy method could confirm the existence of the plateau and the shoulder on distributions.
Cross section of reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181W and the influence of the spin cut-off parameter on the cross section
ZHANG Jun-Jie, HU Bi-Tao
2011, 35(12): 1100-1104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/004
In this work, the program Cindy was modified to calculate the formation cross section of each energy level of residual nucleus 181W resulting from the reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181W. The concerned cross sections calculated at proton energy Ep=4.5-8.5 MeV agreed well with experimental results. The influence of the spin cut-off parameter in the energy level density model on the cross section was studied. The obtained results show that the influence of spin cut-off is obvious for lower energy levels.
Azimuthal correlations of hadrons and fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions
LI Hui-Ling
2011, 35(12): 1105-1110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/005
Two-particle (two-fragment) azimuthal correlation functions are studied by using a simple formula which describes uniformly azimuthal distributions of final-state charged particles and nuclear fragments. This formula is obtained in the framework of a multi-source thermal model (or multi-source ideal gas model). The calculated results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of charged hadrons and nuclear fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate and high energies.
Transverse momentum spectra in high-energy nucleus-nucleus, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions
XIE Wen-Jie
2011, 35(12): 1111-1119. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/006
The transverse momentum distributions of final-state particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (AA), proton-nucleus (pA), and proton-proton (pp) collisions at high energies are investigated using a multisource ideal gas model. Our calculated results show that the contribution of hard emission can be neglected in the study of transverse momentum spectra of charged pions and kaons produced in Cu-Cu collisions at √sNN=22.5 GeV. And if we consider the contribution of hard emission, the transverse momentum spectra of p and p produced in Cu-Cu collisions at √sNN=22.5 GeV, Ks0 produced in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV, J/ψ particles produced in p-Pb collisions at 400 GeV and π+ , K+, p produced in proton-proton collisions at √s=200 GeV, can be described by the model, especially in the tail part of spectra.
Detection Technology and Methods
Performances of RETGEM with resistive electrodes made of kapton foils
YU Bo-Xiang, LIU Hong-Bang, XIE Yi-Gang, ZHANG Ai-Wu, TANG Ai-Song, YANG Ya-Dan, DONG Yang, LI Min, WANG Zhi-Gang, XIE Yu-Guang, CAI Xiao, ZHOU Li, HU Tao
2011, 35(12): 1120-1123. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/007
THGEM with resistive Kapton electrodes (RETGEM) has been developed to make the THGEM more tolerant to discharges. At higher gains with resistive electrodes, serious discharges may travel to the streamer mode, in contrast to violent sparks in conventional GEMs. These streamers are mild and less dangerous to the detector and the front-end electronics. RETGEM looks very promising, and its basic properties are being studied. Recently we developed and tested the THGEM with electrodes using 20 um thick resistive kapton foils. The new RETGEM performs at a lower discharge current, has a lower discharge probability, and has a good energy resolution of 27% and a high effective gas gain and long-term stability.
Simulation and measurement of the resonant Schottky pickup
ZANG Yong-Dong, WU Jun-Xia, ZHAO Tie-Cheng, ZHANG Sheng-Hu, MAO Rui-Shi, XU Hu-Shan, SUN Zhi-Yu, MA Xin-Wen, TU Xiao-Lin, XIAO Guo-Qing
2011, 35(12): 1124-1129. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/008
A resonant Schottky pickup with high sensitivity, built by GSI, will be used for nuclear mass and lifetime measurement at CSRe. The basic concepts of Schottky noise signals, a brief introduction of the geometry of the detector, the transient response of the detector, and MAFIA simulated and perturbation measured results of characteristics are presented in this paper. The resonant frequency of the pickup is about 243 MHz and can be slightly changed at a range of 3 MHz. The unloaded quality factor is about 1072 and the shunt impedance is 76 kΩ. The measured results of the characteristics are in agreement with the MAFIA simulations.
Fast light of CsI(Na) crystals
SUN Xi-Lei, HU Tao, ZHOU Li, CAO Jun, WANG Yi-Fang, ZHAN Liang, YU Bo-Xiang, CAI Xiao, FANG Jian, XIE Yu-Guang, AN Zheng-Hua, WANG Zhi-Gang, XUE Zhen, ZHANG Ai-Wu, NING Fei-Peng, GE Yong-Shuai, LIU Ying-Biao
2011, 35(12): 1130-1133. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/009
The responses of different common alkali halide crystals to alpha-rays and gamma-rays are tested in this research. It is found that only CsI(Na) crystals have significantly different waveforms between alpha and gamma scintillations, while others do not exhibit this phenomena. The rise time of the fast light is about 5 ns and the decay time is 17±12 ns. It is suggested that the fast light of CsI(Na) crystals arises from the recombination of free electrons with self-trapped holes of the host crystal CsI. Self-absorption limits the emission of fast light of CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) crystals.
Scintillating properties of LiYSiO4:Ce
FU Zai-Wei, HENG Yue-Kun, QI Ming, HUANG Pin-Wen, ZHANG Huai-Jin, WANG Ji-Yang, JIA Ru, QIAN Sen, LI Shao-Li, CHEN Xiao-Hui, NING Zhe
2011, 35(12): 1134-1138. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/010
LiYSiO4:Ce is a promising scintillator and some of its properties have been reported in previous papers. In this paper, samples doped with different concentrations of Ce are prepared and studied. First, the relative light yields of the samples are measured as 28.1%-37.1% compared with a standard anthracene crystal being irradiated by α particles and as ~ 27.2% compared with NaI being irradiated by X-rays. Second, the effects of sample thicknesses on light yields are presented. Finally the timing behaviors of samples with different doped concentrations being irradiated with alpha particles and X-rays are discussed. The result shows that LiYSiO4:Ce is a kind of fast scintillator ( ~ 30 ns) with a moderate light yield that can be used for neutron detection.
Silicon photomultiplier readout system for the ECAL in the PEBS and test results from the system
LI Liang, GONG Guang-Hua, ZENG Ming
2011, 35(12): 1139-1142. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/011
Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have remarkable advantages for use in photo-detection. Compared with PMT, SiPM shows advantages of high gain, excellent time resolution, insensitivity to magnetic fields and a lower operating voltage. SiPMs from Hamamatsu are used in the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) sub-detector in the Positron Electron Balloon Spectrometer (PEBS) experiment, a balloon-borne spectrometer experiment aiming at the precise measurement of the cosmic-ray positron fraction. This paper introduces the evaluation and test results of several SiPM detector types, the dedicated front-end application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) electronics and the design of the data acquisition system (DAQ) system.
Measurement and correction of coupling in BEPCⅡ
ZHANG Yuan, YU Cheng-Hui, JI Da-Heng, XU Gang, WEI Yuan-Yuan, QIN Qing
2011, 35(12): 1143-1147. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/012
The existing linear coupling theory and representation method are introduced briefly. The so-called local and global coupling is discussed in more detail. The vertical orbit distortion excited by a horizontal corrector is represented with the coupling parameters at the corrector and the observation point. The formula is used to measure the coupling in BEPCⅡ. In order to correct the coupling, vertical correctors are used to change the vertical orbit through sextupoles by a least square method. We also introduce and review other frequently used coupling measurement/tuning methods used in our machine.
Simulation and experimental study of the solid pulse forming lines for dielectric wall accelerator
ZHAO Quan-Tang, YUAN Ping, ZHANG Zi-Min, CAO Shu-Chun, SHEN Xiao-Kang, LIU Ming, JING Yi, ZHAO Hong-Wei
2011, 35(12): 1148-1151. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/013
Two types of pulse forming lines for dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) were investigated preliminarily. By simulation with CST Microwave Studio, the results indicate the pulse forming process, which can help to understand the voltage wave transmission process and optimize the line parameters. Furthermore, the principle of the pulse forming process was proved by experiments and some excellent pulse waveforms were obtained. During the experiments, the Blumlein line and zero integral pulse (ZIP) forming line, constructed with aluminum foil, poly plate and air gap self-closing switch, were tested. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the waveform is 16 nanoseconds (BL) and 17 nanoseconds (ZIP line),and the formed pulse voltage amplitude is 5 kV (BL) and +2.2 kV/ - 1.6 kV (ZIP line). The experiments result coincides well with the simulation.
Study on space charge effects of the CSNS/RCS
XU Shou-Yan, WANG Sheng
2011, 35(12): 1152-1158. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/014
The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) is a key component of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The space charge effect is one of the most important issues in the CSNS/RCS, which limits the maximum beam intensity, as well as the maximum beam power. Space charge effects are the main source of emittance growth and beam loss in the RCS. Space charge effects have been studied by simulation for the CSNS/RCS. By optimizing the painting orbit, the optimized painting distribution was obtained. The space charge effects during the acceleration are studied and dangerous resonances, which may induce emittance growth and beam loss, are investigated. The results are an important reference for the design and commissioning of the CSNS/RCS.
Study on the W-band photocathode RF gun
ZHU Xiong-Wei
2011, 35(12): 1159-1161. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/015
In this paper, we continue our W-band photoinjector work. We discuss the production of a high brightness femtosecond bunch using our proposed W-band photoinjector under different parameters. The parameters of the produced bunch are the energy of 1.2 MeV, the length of 60 fs, the peak current of 90 A, the normalized emittance of 0.4 mm mrad and the energy spread of 1.9%. Finally, we present some application examples of the proposed photoinjector.
Synchrotron radiation,applications of nuclear techniquees,etc
Performance evaluation of a parallel-hole collimated detector module for animal SPECT imaging
HUANG Xian-Chao, ZHANG Zhi-Ming, LI Dao-Wu, TANG Hao-Hui, LI Ting, LIAO Yan-Fei, LIU Jun-Hui, WANG Pei-Lin, CHEN Yan, WANG Ying-Jie, WEI Long, SHAN Bao-Ci, WANG Bao-Yi
2011, 35(12): 1162-1165. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/016
We have built and investigated a detector module for animal SPECT imaging, especially for use in large field of view (FOV) conditions. The module consists of a PMT-based detector and a parallel-hole collimator with an effective area of 80 mm × 80 mm. The detector is composed of a NaI scintillation crystal array coupled to four H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PS-PMT). The intrinsic energy resolution of the detector is 11.5% at 140 keV on average. The planar spatial resolution of the module changes from 2.2 mm to 5.1 mm at different source-to-collimator distances with an unchanged sensitivity of about 34cps/MBq. Additionally, the SPECT Micro Deluxe Phantom imaging was performed with a radius of rotation (ROR) of 40 mm. Using the FBP reconstruction algorithm, a high performance image was obtained, indicating the feasibility of this detector module.
Investigation of scatter from out of the field of view and multiple scatter in PET using Monte Carlo simulations
YE Ting, CHAI Pei, GAO Juan, YUN Ming-Kai, LIU Shuang-Quan, SHAN Bao-Ci, WEI Long
2011, 35(12): 1166-1171. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/12/017
In fully three-dimensional (3D) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the scatter fraction (SF) is about 40%-60%, which may degrade the imaging quality severely. Scatter correction is important for high quality image reconstruction. Model-based scatter correction has been proved to be accurate and available in clinical PET. However, it does not correct the scatter from out of the field of view (OFOV) and multiple scatters. In this study, we demonstrate the radial and axial distribution of scatters from OFOV when the source is located in different radial positions. In order to apply the above conclusions to different PET systems, we characterize the scatters from OFOV as a function of the ratio of the scanner diameter to the length of the axial field of view (AFOV) by modeling several typical whole-body and micro PET systems. The proportions of true events (S0-0), single scatter of one photon (S1-0) , single scatter of both photons (S1-1) , double scatter of one photon (S2-0) and multiple scatter (Sm) are also calculated and compared. Here the 3D-PET Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the Geant4 Application for Tomography Emission (GATE). In summary, the scatters from OFOV tend to be recorded on the lines of response (LOR) far away from the source. They have a much more serious impact on whole-body PET than micro PET depending on the ratio of scanner diameter to the length of AFOV. In whole-body PET, twice scatters including single scatter of both photons (S1-1) and double scatter of one photon (S2-0) add up to about 12% so that twice scatter correction must be taken into account to acquire a high quality reconstruction image.