2011 Vol. 35, No. 1

Particle and field theory
Luminosity monitoring and calibration of BLM
XUE Zhen, XU Zi-Zong, WANG Xiao-Lian, HU Tao, WANG Zhi-Yong, FU Cheng-Dong, YAN Wen-Biao, ZHOU Li, CAI Xiao, YU Bo-Xiang, FANG Jian, SUN Xi-Lei, SHI Feng, WANG Zhi-Gang, AN Zheng-Hua, SUN Li-Jun, LIU Hong-Bang, ZHANG Ai-Wu, WANG Xiao-Dong
2011, 35(1): 1-5. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/001
The BEPCⅡ Luminosity Monitor (BLM) monitors relative luminosity per bunch. The counting rates of gamma photons, which are proportional to the luminosities from the BLM at the center of mass system energy of the ψ(3770) resonance, are obtained with a statistical error of 0.01% and a systematic error of 4.1%. Absolute luminosities are also determined by the BESⅢ End-cap Electro-Magnetic Calorimeter (EEMC) using Bhabha events with a statistical error of 2.3% and a systematic error of 3.5%. The calibration constant between the luminosities obtained with the EEMC and the counting rates of the BLM are found to be 0.84±0.03 (×1026 cm-2·count-1). With the calibration constant, the counting rates of the BLM can be scaled up to absolute luminosities.
Are operators describing b→sγ?
DONG Fan-Long, WANG Wen-Yu, XIONG Zhao-Hua
2011, 35(1): 6-10. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/002
The operators of b→sγ, b→sl+l- are usually regarded as being sufficient to describe b→sγγ, b→sl+l-γ with the statement that contributions from diagrams without an effective vertex b→sγ to processes b→sγγ and b→sl+l-γ are negligible. In this work we present a comprehensive analysis of the transition b→sγγ and find that 1) Effects due to off-shell quarks in vertex b→sγ on b→sγγ are large; 2) Contributions from diagrams without an effective vertex b→sγ to b→sγγ are not negligible compared with others; 3) These effects cancel each other out exactly, so the operators of b→sγ can safely be used to describe b→sγγ.
Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space
MA Kai, WANG Jian-Hua, YUAN Yi
2011, 35(1): 11-15. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/003
The Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space is studied in this paper. Firstly, since the Dirac equation is described as a matrix equation in phase space, it is necessary to define the Wigner function as a matrix function in spinor space. Secondly, the matrix form of the Wigner function is proven to support the Dirac equation. Thirdly, by solving the Dirac equation, energy levels and the Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space are obtained.
Λc* in a coupled-channel baryon-meson scattering
LIANG Wei-Hong, QIU Yu-Feng, HU Jian-Xiong, SHEN Peng-Nian
2011, 35(1): 16-21. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/004
Possible structures and properties of some excited states of Λc+ dynamically generated in the coupled-channel P-wave meson-baryon scattering are studied by solving the Bethe-Salpeter(BS) equation in the framework of the Chiral Unitary Approach. It is shown that both Λc+(2765) and Λc+(2940) could be generated dynamically and could be compound states with multi-configuration molecular-like structures. The couplings of the generated states to various reaction channels are also calculated. Moreover, two highly excited states, Λc+(3024) and Λc+(3134), are predicted.
particle and nuclear astrophysics and cosmology
Quantum tunnelling of higher-dimensional Kerr-anti-de Sitter black holes beyond semi-classical approximation
LIU Wei-Wei, LUO Zhi-Quan, YANG Juan, BIAN Gang
2011, 35(1): 22-25. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/005
Based on the theory of Klein-Gordon scalar field particles, the Hawking radiation of a higher-dimensional Kerr-anti-de Sitter black hole with one rotational parameter is investigated using the beyond semi-classical approximation method. The corrections of quantum tunnelling probability, Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are also included.
Nuclear and ion Physics
Effect of deuteron density distribution on the deduction of screening potential from the D(d,p)T reaction in Be metals
Lü Hui-Yi, WANG Tie-Shan, HAN Yun-Cheng, FANG Kai-Hong, MENG Xuan, HE Qing-Hua, GUAN Xing-Cai, LAN Ming-Cong
2011, 35(1): 26-30. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/006
The D(d,p)T reaction in Be metal environments has been measured to investigate the electron screening effect in metals in an energy region of from 5.5 keV to 10 keV in a center of mass system (CMS) at a temperature of 121 K. The depth distribution of deuteron density in Be metals has an impact on the observed reaction yields. A model of deuteron density distribution in metal has been proposed to obtain the original yields. A screening energy of (116±46) eV has been obtained with the assumed deuteron density distribution model.
Analysis of the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the same element
ZHOU Feng-Qun, SONG Yue-Li, TUO Fei, KONG Xiang-Zhong
2011, 35(1): 31-34. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/007
Firstly, according to the regulation of growth and decay of radioactive nuclides produced in reactions, a formula used to calculate the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the same element is deduced, and it is pointed out that the activation formula given in two references is incorrect. Then, as an example, the so-called total activation cross section in one of the two references is analyzed and the correct results of the cross sections of 182W(n,p)182(m m+g)Ta, 183W(n,p)183Ta and 206Pb(n,α)203Hg induced by neutrons around 14 MeV calculated with the data given in the literature, the nuclear parameters and some evaluated values are given. Finally, the correct results are compared with other values collected in the literature.
Theoretical analysis of double-differential neutron emission cross sections for n+56Fe reactions at incident energies of 7-13 MeV
HOU Pei-You, SUN Xiao-Jun, YU Cheng-Gang, LU Xiao
2011, 35(1): 35-39. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/008
The double-differential neutron emission cross sections for n+56Fe reactions at incident energies of 7-13 MeV at different angles are calculated by the UNF (abbreviation for unified, 2009 Version) code, which is based on the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model. The results indicate that the higher the incident energies, the better the results, although there are some discrepancies between the calculated results and the measured data for natural iron. These discrepancies are analyzed in detail in this paper. In addition, the calculated results are also compared with the evaluated results of ENDFB Ⅶ.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 near the angle of 90° at incident energies of 8.17 and 11.5 MeV, respectively.
Various flows of black and grey particles produced in Mg-emulsion collisions at 4.5 A GeV c
GAO Yan, LIU Fu-Hu, Abd Allah
2011, 35(1): 40-43. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/009
Various flow phenomena of black particles (b-particles) and grey particles (g-particles) produced in magnesium-emulsion (Mg-Em) collisions at 4.5 A GeV /c are reported. These flows are directed and elliptic transverse flows (v1 and v2) related by the azimuthal angle (φ), directed and elliptic reaction plane flows (vR1 and vR2) related by the projected angle (ψ) on the reaction plane, and directed and elliptic polar direction flows (vP1 and vP2) related by the polar angle (θ). We extract absolute flows as the direct experimental values minus the isotropic theoretical values. The dependence of the various flows on the target particle multiplicity and on the angles (θ,φ,ψ) is investigated. Our results show that the dependence of b-particle flows on the target size is obvious and for heavy targets the dependence on target particle multiplicity is slight. Compared with b-particles, g-particles have a slight dependence on the target size and target particle multiplicity.
Recursive method for opacity expansion at finite temperature
LIU Jia, KANG Zhong-Bo, WANG En-ke
2011, 35(1): 44-49. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/010
Using a reaction operator approach, we derive the multiple-scattering induced gluon number distribution function to all orders in powers of opacity at finite temperature. The detailed balance effect is analyzed by taking into account both gluon emission and absorption in a thermal medium. We also calculate virtual corrections and show that the infrared divergence cancels out in the gluon distribution function at finite temperature.
Detection Technology and Methods
Comparative studies of silicon photomultipliers and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes
SHI Feng, LU Hong, WANG Huan-Yu, MA Yu-Qian, HU Tao, ZHOU Li, CAI Xiao, SUN Li-Jun, YU Bo-Xiang, FANG Jian, XIE Yu-Guang, AN Zheng-Hua, WANG Zhi-Gang, GAO Min, LI Xin-Qiao, XU Yan-Bing, WANG Ping, SUN Xi-Lei, ZHANG Ai-Wu, XUE Zhen, LIU Hong-Bang, WANG Xiao-Dong, ZHAO Xiao-Yun, ZHENG Yang-Heng, MENG Xiang-Cheng, WANG Hui
2011, 35(1): 50-55. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/011
Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a new generation of semiconductor-based photon counting devices with the merits of low weight, low power consumption and low voltage operation, promising to meet the needs of space particle physics experiments. In this paper, comparative studies of SiPMs and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been performed regarding the basic properties of dark currents, dark counts and excess noise factors. The intrinsic optical crosstalk effect of SiPMs was evaluated.
Drift field improvement and test in a GEM-TPC prototype
ZHENG Bao-Jun, LI Yu-Lan, DENG Zhi-Yong, LI Bo
2011, 35(1): 56-60. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/012
With the help of Maxwell, Ansys and Garfield, a simulation of the electric field and the deviation of electron drift in the drift volume of a GEM-TPC prototype has been accomplished under the following conditions: Field Cages with one-side and double-side strips, with and without a guard ring. The advantage and necessity of a Field Cage with mirror strips and a guard ring were foreseen. According to the simulation results, TU-TPC was modified and tested; a larger effective area and better resolution were achieved.
A TOF-PET prototype with position sensitive PMT readout
CHEN Jin-Da, XU Hu-Shan, HU Zheng-Guo, TANG Bin, YUE Ke, YU Yu-Hong, ZHANG Xue-Heng, KONG Jie, ZANG Yong-Dong, WANG Jian-Song, SUN Zhi-Yu, GUO Zhong-Yan
2011, 35(1): 61-66. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/013
A prototype of time-of-flight positron emission computed tomography (TOF-PET) has been developed for acquiring the coincident detection of 511 keV γ-rays produced from positron annihilation. It consists of two 80.5 mm×80.5 mm LYSO scintillator arrays (composed of 35×35 pixel finger crystals) with the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes R2487 as the readout. Each array is composed of 2 mm×2 mm×15 mm finger crystals and the average pixel pitch is 2.30 mm. The measured results indicate that the TOF information has the potential to significantly enhance the image quality by improving the noise variance in the image reconstruction. The best spatial resolution (FWHM) of the prototype for the pairs of 511 keV γ-rays is 1.98 mm and 2.16 mm in the x and y directions, respectively, which are smaller than the average pixel pitch of 2.30 mm.
Design studies on the 4π γ-ray calorimeter for the ETF experiment at HIRFL-CSR
YUE Ke, XU Hu-Shan, SUN Zhi-Yu, SU Guang-Hui, WANG Jian-Song, ZHENG Chuan, LI Song-Lin, HU Zheng-Guo, CHEN Rou-Fu, XIAO Zhi-Gang, HU Qiang, ZHANG Xue-Ying, YU Yu-Hong, CHEN Jun-Ling
2011, 35(1): 67-71. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/014
A high detection efficiency calorimeter which is used to detect γ-rays with energies from 1 MeV up to 10 MeV as well as light charged particles has been proposed. Design of the geometry, results of the crystal tests and Monte Carlo simulations are presented in this paper. The simulation results confirm that the calorimeter can obtain high detection efficiency and good energy resolution with the current designed geometry. And the calorimeter is competent for the future External Target Facility (ETF) experiments.
Time calibration for the end cap TOF system of BESⅢ
ZHAO Chuan, SUN Sheng-Sen, LI Cheng, ZHANG Xiao-Jie, HE Kang-Lin, AN Qi, CHEN Hong-Fang, DAI Hong-Liang, FENG Chang-Qing, HENG Yue-Kun, HUANG Ya-Qi, HUANG Yan-Ping, GUO Jian-Hua, LI Wei-Dong, LI Xiu-Rong, LIU Fang, LIU Huai-Min, LIU Shu-Bin, LIU Shu-Dong, LIU Yong, MA Xiang, MAO Ze-Pu, SHAO Ming, SUN Yong-Jie, SUN Zhi-Jia, WU Jin-Jie, YANG Gui-An, ZHAO Lei, ZHU Xing-Wang, ZUO Jia-Xu
2011, 35(1): 72-78. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/015
The time calibration for end cap TOF system of BESⅢ is studied in this paper. It has achieved about 110 ps time resolution for muons in dimu events. The pulse height correction using electronic scan curve and the predicted time calculated using Kalman filter method are introduced. This paper also describes the study of using electrons and muons as calibration samples.
Design and experiments for the waveguide to coaxial cable adapter of a cavity beam position monitor
LI Xiang, ZHENG Shu-Xin
2011, 35(1): 79-82. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/016
The waveguide to coaxial cable adapter is very important to the cavity beam position monitor (CBPM) because it determines how much of the energy in the cavity could be coupled outside. In this paper, the waveguide to coaxial cable adapter of a CBPM is designed and experiments are conducted. The curve shapes of experiments and simulations are very similar and the difference in reflection is less than 0.1. This progress provides a reliable method for designing the adapter.
Simulation of ion beam extraction and focusing system
B. A. Soliman, M. M. Abdelrahman, A. G. Helal, F. W. Abdelsalam
2011, 35(1): 83-87. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/017
The characteristics of ion beam extraction and focused to a volume as small as possible were investigated with the aid of computer code SIMION 3D version 7. This has been used to evaluate the extraction characteristics (accel-decel system) to generate an ion beam with low beam emittance and high brightness. The simulation process can provide a good study for optimizing the extraction and focusing system of the ion beam without any losses and transported to the required target. Also, a study of a simulation model for the extraction system of the ion source was used to describe the possible plasma boundary curvatures during the ion extraction that may be affected by the change in an extraction potential with a constant plasma density meniscus.
Design studies on a 500 kV DC gun photo-injector for the BXERL test facility
LIU Sheng-Guang, XU Jin-Qiang
2011, 35(1): 88-91. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/018
BXERL is a proposal for a test facility (Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac), which requires its injector to provide an electron beam of 5 MeV, 77 pC/ bunch at a repetition rate of 130 MHz (average current of 10 mA). In this paper, we present the design of the injector, which consists of a 500 kV photocathode DC gun equipped with a GaAs cathode preparation device, a 1.3 GHz normal conducting RF buncher, two solenoids, and one cryomodule containing two 1.3 GHz 2-cell superconducting RF cavities as the energy booster. The detailed beam dynamics show that the injector can generate electron bunches with a RMS normalized emittance of 1.49 πmm·mrad, a bunch length of 0.67 mm, a beam energy of 5 MeV and an energy spread of 0.72%.
RF power coupling for the CSNS DTL
LIU Hua-Chang, PENG Jun, YIN Xue-Jun, OUYANG Hua-Fu, FU Shi-Nian
2011, 35(1): 92-95. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/019
The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) drift tube linac (DTL) consists of four tanks and each tank is fed by a 2.5 MW klystron. Accurate predication of RF coupling between the RF cavity and ports is very important for DTL RF coupler design. An iris-type coupler is chosen to couple the RF power to the DTL accelerating cavity. The physical design of the DTL coupler and the calculations of RF coupling between the cavity and coupler are carried out. The results from the numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical results.
Research on a novel compact linac
LUO Xiao-Wei, XIANG Xin-Lei, XIE Jia-Lin
2011, 35(1): 96-99. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/020
This work looks at a new type of electron linear accelerator. Compared with the traditional electron linac, it has only two main parts: a klystron and an accelerating tube, without the electron gun element. This new kind of linac could perform just like its predecesors but reduce cost and space. The preliminary design and simulation have been accomplished. In this paper, an overview discussion about the performance tests and some improvements to increase the beam current are presented.
Synchrotron radiation,applications of nuclear techniquees,etc
A compact positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer
LI Dao-Wu, LIU Jun-Hui, ZHANG Zhi-Ming, WANG Bao-Yi, ZHANG Tian-Bao, WEI Long
2011, 35(1): 100-103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/021
Using LYSO scintillator coupled on HAMAMATSU R9800 (a fast photomultiplier) to form the small size γ-ray detectors, a compact lifetime spectrometer has been built for the positron annihilation experiments. The system time resolution FWHM=193 ps and the coincidence counting rate ~8 cps/μCi were achieved. A lifetime value of 219±1 ps of positron annihilation in well annealed Si was tested, which is in agreement with the typical values published in the previous lectures.
Design and analysis of the tunnel connecting the beamcorridor and the spectrum hall of the CSNS
LIU Jian, WANG Qing-Bin, WU Qing-Biao, MA Zhong-Jian
2011, 35(1): 104-108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/1/022
There is a tunnel connecting the beamcorridor and the target station in the spectrum hall in the CSNS project. The length of the tunnel is about 20 m. The shielding design of the tunnel is very significant for the persons working in the spectrum hall because the tunnel is not covered by soil for shielding. In order to reduce the dose rate at the exit of the cable ducts, we use the ISIS construction, which is designed with four turnings, as a reference for the tunnel design. The thickness of the shielding is obtained by a simulation with the Monte Carlo Code FLUKA. The result is compared with the data obtained with Moyer Mode and the reliability of the simulation is proved. This paper provides the basis for the design of the tunnel.