## 2007 Vol. 31, No. 8

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**Abstract:**

The uncertainty of the treatment for the beam associated backgrounds is one of the dominant errors in the previous R measurement at BES/BEPC. A new method is developed to separate the beam associated sample from the raw data, and this sample is used in tuning the parameters of the hadronic generator LUARLW. This improvement can decrease the systematic error of the selection efficiency of hadronic events, and improve the precision of the R value.

**Abstract:**

We calculate the new physics contributions to the branching ratios of the rare decays B→X

_{s}l

^{+}l

^{－}(l=e,μ) induced by neutral Higgs bosons loop diagrams in the top quark two-Higgs-doublet model (T2HDM). From the numerical calculations, we find that (a) the neutral Higgs boson's correction to B→X

_{s}l

^{+}l

^{－}decays interferes constructively with its standard model counterpart, but small in magnitude; (b) the neutral Higgs contributions to the branching ratio of B→X

_{s}l

^{+}l

^{－}decay can be neglected safely if their masses are larger than 100GeV and tanβ≤40.

**Abstract:**

We analyze the uncertainties induced by different definitions of the momentum fraction z in the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function. We numerically calculate the initial g→J/ψ fragmentation functions by using the non-covariant definitions of z with finite gluon momentum and find that these fragmentation functions have strong dependence on the gluon momentum k. As |k|→∞, these fragmentation functions approach to the fragmentation function in the light-cone definition. We find that when |k| is small (for instance in the typical energy scale (about 4—20GeV) of the gluon production at the hadron colliders, such as Tevatron and LHC), large uncertainty remains while the in-covariant definitions of z are employed in the application of the fragmentation functions.

**Abstract:**

^{182}Hf with half-life of about (8.90±0.09) Ma is an extinct radionuclide and can only be produced by a supernova explosion in nature. Therefore

^{182}Hf is an ideal candidate nuclide for the study on possible supernova explosions in the vicinity of the earth within the last 100 million years. In addition,

^{182}Hf is a long-lived radionuclide of particular interest for nuclear engineering. Accurate measurement of ultra-trace

^{182}Hf is very important for reactor design，studies on nuclear cosmo-physics and other fields. With an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), it is possible to detect the trace amounts of

^{182}Hf. In this paper, the detection method of

^{182}Hf with HI-13 AMS system at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) and the chemical procedures to reduce

^{182}W interference are presented. The energy and TOF two-dimension spectra of

^{182}Hf and

^{183}W for blank and a series of standard samples have been obtained, respectively. The

^{182}W contribution to the counts in

^{182}Hf peak was corrected by

^{183}W normalization. The detection sensitivity of this AMS facility for

^{182}Hf/

^{180}Hf ratio measurement is about 4.15±10

^{－11}at present.

**Abstract:**

The properties of baryons in nuclear matter are analysed in the relativistic mean-field theory(RMF). It is found that the scalar field σ meson affects the properties of baryon at high density. A density dependent scalar coupling gσN is determined according to the idea of quark-meson coupling model and extended to RMF. It is shown that gσN affects the property of nuclear matter weakly at low density, but strongly at high density. The relation between the scalar density ρ

_{S}and the nuclear density ρ and the effective mass of the pentaquark Θ

^{+}are studied with the density dependent coupling constant. The density dependent scalar coupling obviously affects the effective masses of baryons in nuclear matter, especially at high density.

**Abstract:**

The analysis of experimental nuclear charge radii R

_{c}indicates that R

_{c}deviates systematically from the A

^{1/3}law, i.e., R

_{c}/A

^{1/3}gradually decreases with increasing A, whereas R

_{c}/Z

^{1/3}remains almost a constant. This statement is also supported by the analysis of a large amount of experimental nulcear giant monopole resonance energy data E

_{x}∝ R

^{－1}. The deviation of nuclear charge radii from the A

^{1/3}law is basically caused by the isospin independence of A

^{1/3}law, and the isospin dependence has been partly included in Z

^{1/3}law. In the frame of nuclear shell model, a microscopic demonstration of the Z

^{1/3}law is given. The difference in the harmonic oscillator potential strength between proton and neutron (ω

_{p}and ω

_{n}) can be accounted for by the Z

^{1/3}law. Similar to Wigner's nuclear isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), a modified Z

^{1/3}law for nuclear charge radii is proposed.

**Abstract:**

The freeze-out time dependence of the elliptic flow and the transverse radius r

_{T}dependence of elliptic flow at different freeze-out time are studied for non-central Au+Au collisions at s

_{NN}=200 GeV with the Relativistic Quantum Mocular Dynamics model. We get the results that the elliptic flow decreases with the freeze-out time and the correlation between the elliptic flow and the transverse radius changes with the freeze-out time what could be explained with the pressure gradient. The transverse expansion velocity of particles emitted at the freeze-out time is adopted as a signal of the pressure gradient.

**Abstract:**

Based on the isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU04, we calculated the reaction of the

^{132}Sn+

^{124}Sn systems in semi-central collisions at beam energies of 400/A MeV, 600/A MeV and 800/A MeV by adopting two different density dependent symmetry energies. It was found that the proton differential elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum is quite sensitive to the density dependence of symmetry energy, especially for the considered beam energy range. Therefore the proton differential elliptic flow may be considered as a robust probe for investigating the high density behavior of symmetry energy in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions.

**Abstract:**

An unbiased factorized chi-square estimator is constructed to deal with the correlated data for linear function fit. The difference between the biased and unbiased chi-square fitting is expounded. In addition, the simplified R-value measurement is quoted to test the conclusion quantitatively.

**Abstract:**

A new gas delivery system is designed and installed for HIRFL-CSR cluster target. The original blocked nozzle is replaced by a new one with the throat diameter of 0.12mm. New test of hydrogen and argon gases are performed. The stable jets can be obtained for these two operation gases. The attenuation of the jet caused by the collision with residual gas is studied. The maximum achievable H

_{2}target density is 1.75×10

^{13}atoms/cm

^{3}with a target thickness of 6.3×10

^{12}atoms/cm

^{2}for HIRFL-CSR cluster target. The running stability of the cluster source is tested both for hydrogen and argon. The operation parameters for obtaining hydrogen jet are optimized. The results of long time running for H

_{2}and Ar cluster jets look promising. The jet intensity has no essential change during the test for H

_{2}and Ar.

**Abstract:**

In this paper a new method to measure the lifetime of heavy hypernuclei is introduced, and the main device used in the measurement — fission fragment chamber (FFC) — is tested by a

^{252}Cf spontaneous source at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The chamber has a single-module timing resolution of ～163ps. Based on the timing resolution tested, our computer simulation predicts that the error of the measured lifetime is about 9.6ps.

**Abstract:**

The temperature dependences of the light output of CsI(Tl) crystal grown at IMP and of the gain of the Hamamatsu S8664-1010 avalanche photodiode (APD) have been investigated systematically. The light output of the CsI(Tl) crystal increases with temperature by 0.67%/℃ in the region from －2℃ to 8℃, and by 0.33%/℃ in the region from 8℃ to 25℃, while the gain of the tested APD decreases by －3.68%/℃ (working voltage 400V) on average in the room temperature range. The best energy resolution 5.1% of the CsI(Tl) with APD was obtained for the 662keV γ ray from

^{137}Cs radiation source.

**Abstract:**

To obtain a pure electron sample with high statistics, which is necessary for the asymmetry and cross section analysis for the small angle GDH experiment in JLab Hall-A, the information in shower and gas Cerenkov has been used in the particle identification. Due to the dependence of the kinematics, the PID cut and the corresponding efficiency have been optimized for different runs.

**Abstract:**

In order to carry out an in-depth study on the negative hydrogen DC beam transport in the axial injection line of CYCIAE-100, a high intensity cyclotron under design at CIAE, the split-operator method is adopted in this paper for macro-particle dynamics simulation. In this method, the Hamiltonian is divided into two parts: external applied field and space-charge field. The former is dealt with single particle tracking and adopts first order approximation; the latter is dealt with PIC method, and FFT technique is used to solve the Poisson equation. Moreover, we developed an object-oriented code of two-dimension macro particle dynamics (CYCPIC2D) using FORTRON 95 language. This code can be applied to the transport line calculation of arbitrarily distributed beam. The simulation result for CYCIAE-100 injection line is presented, and validated by ORBIT and TRACE-3D. It indicates that the space charge effects have significant impact on the injection line, and the results given by three codes are basically accordant with each other. When the beam intensity reaches several ten milliamperes, the two PIC-based codes CYCPIC2D and ORBIT still give consistent results, while the result given by TRACE-3D shows evident difference with the other two.

**Abstract:**

STF is a test facility for ILC which is under construction in KEK, Japan. The digital LLRF system is used to control the RF phase and amplitude inside the superconducting cavities. Because there is no real cavity to be controlled, a real time cavity simulator is designed to simulate the cavity response. An FPGA based cavity controller is designed to control the cavities. In the FPGA program, PI feedback and feed forward algorithm are adopted. Measurement shows that both the cavity simulator and the cavity controller work well.

**Abstract:**

We studied the microbunch instability in wigglers induced by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) theoretically and numerically for the first time. This instability occurs only at very small energy spread, and reaches maximum when the energy of electrons and the peak value of the magnet field adopt specific values. Results show that the instability may slightly exist in the wiggler of Beijing Free Electron Laser (BFEL), but does not happen at all in the wigglers of the proposed China Test Facility (CTF) for the X-ray free electron laser.

**Abstract:**

ISR-1000 will be used as the injector of the SFRFQ, which is under development at Peking University. The possibility to improve its transmission has been investigated. In order to get better transmission, the input beam parameters and the vane voltage have been optimized without changing the structure of the RFQ. In addition, the error study on input beam parameters of ISR-1000 has been carried out. The sensitivity of those parameters has been obtained by simulation.

**Abstract:**

The transportation process of the electron beam in the 270° bending magnet system of the medical accelerator is studied under the one-order approximation, and the influence of the initial condition to the beam transportation and loss is analyzed for the calculation of the radiation dose. The theory of the beam transportation, combined with the Monte Carlo sampling method is applied. The simulation result shows that the energy spread is the main factor resulted in the beam loss. The data on the position, energy and direction of the lost electrons obtained through the simulation can be supplied as input to deal with the radiation problem. The result gives that the loss rate of the electron beam is 13.5%, and the direction of the main loss is toward the upside of the irradiating head of the accelerator with the radius 1mm, angle spread 5mrad, and energy spread 10% of the initial beam.

**Abstract:**

In this short review, study of multi-quark states is briefly introduced. Theoretical study of four-quark states, pentaquark states and dibaryons is simply reviewed. Experimental signals relevant to multi-quark states are listed.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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