Excess 3H in the volcanic lakes: evidence for natural nuclear fusion

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JIANG Song-Sheng, HE Ming, YUE Wei-Hong, QI Bu-Jia and Jing Liu. Excess 3H in the volcanic lakes: evidence for natural nuclear fusion[J]. Chinese Physics C, 2008, 32(S2): 289-293.
JIANG Song-Sheng, HE Ming, YUE Wei-Hong, QI Bu-Jia and Jing Liu. Excess 3H in the volcanic lakes: evidence for natural nuclear fusion[J]. Chinese Physics C, 2008, 32(S2): 289-293. shu
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Received: 2008-07-17
Revised: 1900-01-01
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Excess 3H in the volcanic lakes: evidence for natural nuclear fusion

    Corresponding author: JIANG Song-Sheng,

Abstract: The excess 3H (tritium) have been observed in the volcanic lakes Nemrut (Turkey), Laacher (Germany) and Pavin (France). The 4He and 3He concentrations in Lakes Nemrut, Laacher, and Pavin were determined to be 25 and 190, 10 and 50, and 70 and 500 times larger than the atmospheric saturation value respectively. The isotopic ratio of the helium excess, 3Heex/4Heex, in Lakes Nemrut, Laacher and Pavin was (1.032±0.006)×10-5, (7.42±0.03)×10-6 and (9.09±0.01)×10-6 respectively. The 3He/4He ratio of helium isotopes in the lake can help us to identify the origin of gas fluxes from the interior of the Earth. The 3He/4He ratios in the Lakes Nemrut, Laacher and Pavin clearly indicate that a large amount of helium isotopes were released to the lakes from mantle source. The excess 3H at the bottom of Lakes Nemrut, Laacher and Pavin have a good correlation with mantle 3He. We consider that the excess 3H might be also released from mantle source and both 3H and 3He might be produced by nuclear fusion (d-d reaction) in an environment rich in H atoms and (U+Th) at high temperature and high pressure condition in deep Earth.

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