• [1]

    W. J. Marciano and H. Pagels, Phys. Rept. 36, 137 (1978)

  • [2]

    R. Brock et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 67, 157-248 (1995)

  • [3]

    S. J. Brodsky, C. D. Roberts, R. Shrock et al., Phys. Rev. C 82, 022201(R) (2010)

  • [4]

    P. Zyla et al. (Particle Data Group), PTEP 2020, 083C01 (2020)

  • [5]

    A. S. Stodolna, A. Rouzée, F. Lépine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 213001 (2013)

  • [6]

    C. D. Roberts, Few Body Syst. 58, 5 (2017)

  • [7]

    B. Adams et al., Letter of Intent: A New QCD facility at the M2 beam line of the CERN SPS (COMPASS++/AMBER), arXiv: 1808.00848[hep-ex]

  • [8]

    V. Andrieux and B. Parsamyan, From COMPASS to AMBER: exploring fundamental properties of hadrons, CERN EP Newsletter 2020/12 - 2021/02, https://ep-news.web.cern.ch/compass-amber-exploring-fundamental-properties-hadrons

  • [9]

    T. Horn and C. D. Roberts, J. Phys. G. 43, 073001 (2016)

  • [10]

    A. C. Aguilar et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 55, 190 (2019)

  • [11]

    S. J. Brodsky et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 29(08), 2030006 (2020)

  • [12]

    X. Chen, F.-K. Guo, C. D. Roberts et al., Few Body Syst. 61, 43 (2020)

  • [13]

    D. P. Anderle et al., Front. Phys. (Beijing) 16(6), 64701 (2021)

  • [14]

    J. Arrington et al., J. Phys. G 48, 075106 (2021)

  • [15]

    R. Abdul Khalek et al., Nucl. Phys. A 1026, 122447 (2022)

  • [16]

    M.-L. Du, V. Baru, F.-K. Guo et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 80(11), 1053 (2020)

  • [17]

    Y.-Z. Xu, S. Chen, Z.-Q. Yao et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 81, 895 (2021)

  • [18]

    P. Sun, X.-B. Tong, and F. Yuan, Phys. Rev. D 105(5), 054032 (2022)

  • [19]

    C. D. Roberts, D. G. Richards, T. Horn et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 120, 103883 (2021)

  • [20]

    J. Carlson, A. Jaffe, A. Wiles (Eds.), The Millenium Prize Problems, (American Mathematical Society, Providence, 2006)

  • [21]

    K. Abe et al., Phys. Rev. D 95(1), 012004 (2017)

  • [22]

    F. Heiße, S. Rau, F. Köhler-Langes et al., Phys. Rev. A 100(2), 022518 (2019)

  • [23]

    S. J. Brodsky, G. F. de Teramond, H. G. Dosch et al., Phys. Rept. 584, 1-105 (2015)

  • [24]

    M. M. Giannini and E. Santopinto, Chin. J. Phys. 53, 020301 (2015)

  • [25]

    G. Eichmann, H. Sanchis-Alepuz, R. Williams et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 91, 1-100 (2016)

  • [26]

    S.-X. Qin, C. D. Roberts, and S. M. Schmidt, Few Body Syst. 60, 26 (2019)

  • [27]

    S.-X. Qin and C. D. Roberts, Chin. Phys. Lett. Express 38(7), 071201 (2021)

  • [28]

    P.-L. Yin, Z.-F. Cui, C. D. Roberts et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 81(4), 327 (2021)

  • [29]

    R. Frisch and O. Stern, Z. Physik 85, 4-16 (1933)

  • [30]

    R. Hofstadter, Rev. Mod. Phys. 28, 214-254 (1956)

  • [31]

    M. I. Eides, H. Grotch, and V. A. Shelyuto, Phys. Rept. 342, 63-261 (2001)

  • [32]

    L. Schlessinger, Phys. Rev. 167, 1411-1423 (1968)

  • [33]

    L. Schlessinger and C. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1173-1174 (1966)

  • [34]

    R. A. Tripolt, I. Haritan, J. Wambach et al., Phys. Lett. B 774, 411-416 (2017)

  • [35]

    C. Chen, Y. Lu, D. Binosi et al., Phys. Rev. D 99, 034013 (2019)

  • [36]

    J. C. Bernauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 242001 (2010)

  • [37]

    R. Pohl et al., Nature 466, 213-216 (2010)

  • [38]

    X. Zhan et al., Phys. Lett. B 705, 59-64 (2011)

  • [39]

    A. Antognini et al., Science 339, 417-420 (2013)

  • [40]

    A. Beyer et al., Science 358(6359), 79–85 (2017)

  • [41]

    H. Fleurbaey, S. Galtier, S. Thomas et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 183001 (2018)

  • [42]

    M. Mihovilovič et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 57(3), 107 (2021)

  • [43]

    N. Bezginov, T. Valdez, M. Horbatsch et al., Science 365(6457), 1007-1012 (2019)

  • [44]

    W. Xiong et al., Nature 575(7781), 147–150 (2019)

  • [45]

    E. Tiesinga, P. J. Mohr, D. B. Newell et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 93(2), 025010 (2021)

  • [46]

    Y.-H. Lin, H.-W. Hammer, and U.-G. Meißner, Phys. Lett. B 816, 136254 (2021)

  • [47]

    Z.-F. Cui, D. Binosi, C. D. Roberts et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 127(9), 092001 (2021)

  • [48]

    R. Gilman et al., Studying the Proton "Radius" Puzzle with \begin{document}$\mu p$\end{document} Elastic Scattering – arXiv: 1303.2160[hep-ex]

  • [49]

    E. Cline, J. Bernauer, E. J. Downie et al., SciPost Phys. Proc. 5, 023 (2021)

  • [50]

    K. Nakamura et al., J. Phys. G 37, 075021 (2010)

  • [51]

    H. Gao and M. Vanderhaeghen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 94(1), 015002 (2022)

  • [52]

    S. Durr et al., Science 322, 1224-1227 (2008)

  • [53]

    S.-X. Qin and C. D. Roberts, Chin. Phys. Lett. 37(12), 121201 (2020)

  • [54]

    C. E. Carlson, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 82, 59-77 (2015)

  • [55]

    E. Kraus, K. E. Mesick, A. White et al., Phys. Rev. C 90, 045206 (2014)

  • [56]

    I. T. Lorenz and U.-G. Meißner, Phys. Lett. B 737, 57-59 (2014)

  • [57]

    K. Griffioen, C. Carlson, and S. Maddox, Phys. Rev. C 93, 065207 (2016)

  • [58]

    D. W. Higinbotham, A. A. Kabir, V. Lin et al., Phys. Rev. C 93, 055207 (2016)

  • [59]

    T. B. Hayward and K. A. Griffioen, Nucl. Phys. A 999, 121767 (2020)

  • [60]

    S. Zhou, P. Giulani, J. Piekarewicz et al., Phys. Rev. C 99, 055202 (2019)

  • [61]

    J. M. Alarcón, D. W. Higinbotham, C. Weiss et al., Phys. Rev. C 99, 044303 (2019)

  • [62]

    S. K. Barcus, D. W. Higinbotham, and R. E. McClellan, Phys. Rev. C 102(1), 015205 (2020)

  • [63]

    H.-W. Hammer and U.-G. Meißner, Sci. Bull. 65, 257-258 (2020)

  • [64]

    X. Yan, D. W. Higinbotham, D. Dutta et al., Phys. Rev. C 98, 025204 (2018)

  • [65]

    C. H. Reinsch, Numer. Math. 10, 177-183 (1967)

  • [66]

    F. Borkowski, G. G. Simon, V. H. Walther et al., Z. Phys. A 275(1), 29-31 (1975)

  • [67]

    J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 70, 068202 (2004)

  • [68]

    J. Arrington, Phys. Rev. C 69, 022201 (2004)

  • [69]

    J. Arrington and I. Sick, Phys. Rev. C 76, 035201 (2007)

  • [70]

    J. C. Bernauer et al., Phys. Rev. C 90(1), 015206 (2014)

  • [71]

    Z. Ye, J. Arrington, R. J. Hill et al., Phys. Lett. B 777, 8-15 (2018)

  • [72]

    J. M. Alarcón and C. Weiss, Phys. Rev. C 96(5), 055206 (2017)

  • [73]

    A. Gasparian, H. Gao, D. Dutta et al., Precision deuteron charge radius measurement with elastic electron-deuteron scattering – PRad Collaboration Jefferson Lab proposal PR12-17-009

  • [74]

    A. Grinin, A. Matveev, D. C. Yost et al., Science 370(6520), 1061-1066 (2020)

  • [75]

    R. Pohl et al., Science 353(6300), 669-673 (2016)

  • [76]

    R. Sachs, Phys. Rev. 126, 2256-2260 (1962)

  • [77]

    G. A. Miller, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 60, 1-25 (2010)

  • [78]

    T. Aoyama, M. Hayakawa, T. Kinoshita et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 111807 (2012)

  • [79]

    M. K. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1398-1402 (2000)

  • [80]

    L. L. Foldy, Rev. Mod. Phys. 30, 471-481 (1958)

  • [81]

    G. Lee, J. R. Arrington, and R. J. Hill, Phys. Rev. D 92(1), 013013 (2015)

  • [82]

    J. M. Alarcón, D. W. Higinbotham, and C. Weiss, Phys. Rev. C 102(3), 035203 (2020)

  • [83]

    Y.-H. Lin, H.-W. Hammer, and U.-G. Meißner, Eur. Phys. J. A 57, 255 (2021)

  • [84]

    D. Djukanovic, T. Harris, G. von Hippel et al., Phys. Rev. D 103(9), 094522 (2021)

  • [85]

    Z.-F. Cui, D. Binosi, C. D. Roberts et al., Chin. Phys. Lett. Express 38(12), 121401 (2021)

  • [86]

    M. Rosenbluth, Phys. Rev. 79, 615-619 (1950)

  • [87]

    S. J. Brodsky, H.-C. Pauli, and S. S. Pinsky, Phys. Rept. 301, 299-486 (1998)

  • [88]

    S. J. Brodsky, A. Deur, and C. D. Roberts, Nature Reviews Physics 4, 489-495 (2022)

  • [89]

    G. A. Miller, E. Piasetzky, and G. Ron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 082002 (2008)

  • [90]

    V. Punjabi, C. F. Perdrisat, M. K. Jones et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 51, 79 (2015)

  • [91]

    I. C. Cloet and C. D. Roberts, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 77, 1-69 (2014)

  • [92]

    M. Y. Barabanov et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 116, 103835 (2021)

  • [93]

    R. S. Sufian, G. F. de Téramond, S. J. Brodsky et al., Phys. Rev. D 95(1), 014011 (2017)

  • [94]

    Y.-Z. Xu, D. Binosi, Z.-F. Cui et al., Phys. Rev. D 100, 114038 (2019)

  • [95]

    C. Mondal, S. Xu, J. Lan et al., Phys. Rev. D 102(1), 016008 (2020)

  • [96]

    Z.-F. Cui, C. Chen, D. Binosi et al., Phys. Rev. D 102, 014043 (2020)

  • [97]

    K. D. Lane, Phys. Rev. D 10, 2605 (1974)

  • [98]

    H. D. Politzer, Nucl. Phys. B 117, 397 (1976)

  • [99]

    R. Delbourgo and M. D. Scadron, J. Phys. G 5, 1621 (1979)

  • [100]

    P. Maris, C. D. Roberts, and P. C. Tandy, Phys. Lett. B 420, 267-273 (1998)

  • [101]

    S. J. Brodsky, C. D. Roberts, R. Shrock et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 065202 (2012)

  • [102]

    H. Yukawa, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Jap. 17, 48-57 (1935)

  • [103]

    C. M. G. Lattes, H. Muirhead, G. P. S. Occhialini et al., Nature 159, 694-697 (1947)

  • [104]

    L. Chang and C. D. Roberts, Chin. Phys. Lett. 38(8), 081101 (2021)

  • [105]

    L. Chang, F. Gao, and C. D. Roberts, Phys. Lett. B 829, 137078 (2022)

  • [106]

    Y. Lu, L. Chang, K. Raya et al., Phys. Lett. B 830, 137130 (2022)

  • [107]

    M. Chen, M. Ding, L. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. D 98, 091505(R) (2018)

  • [108]

    S. R. Amendolia et al., Phys. Lett. B 146, 116 (1984)

  • [109]

    S. R. Amendolia et al., Nucl. Phys. B 277, 168 (1986)

  • [110]

    E. B. Dally et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 375-378 (1982)

  • [111]

    I. M. Gough Eschrich et al., Phys. Lett. B 522, 233-239 (2001)

  • [112]

    B. Ananthanarayan, I. Caprini, and D. Das, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(13), 132002 (2017)

  • [113]

    G. Colangelo, M. Hoferichter, and P. Stoffer, JHEP 02, 006 (2019)

  • [114]

    M. Tanabashi et al., Phys. Rev. D 98, 030001 (2018)

  • [115]

    Z.-F. Cui, D. Binosi, C. D. Roberts et al., Phys. Lett. B 822, 136631 (2021)

  • [116]

    E. Dally, J. Hauptman, J. Kubic, D. Stork, A. Watson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 232-235 (1980)

  • [117]

    S. Amendolia et al., Phys. Lett. B 178, 435 (1986)

  • [118]

    C. Adams, G. Carleo, A. Lovato et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 127(2), 022502 (2021)

  • [119]

    R. Pohl et al., Metrologia 54(2), L1 (2017)

  • [120]

    J. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. C 103(2), 024002 (2021)

  • [121]

    D. Abbott et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 7, 421-427 (2000)

  • [122]

    A. P. Kobushkin and A. I. Syamtomov, Phys. Atom. Nucl. 58, 1477-1482 (1995)

  • [123]

    A. Parker and D. W. Higinbotham, Deuteron Form Factor Parameterization, https://zenodo.org/record/4074281, (2020)

  • [124]

    I. Sick, Nucl. Phys. A 218, 509-541 (1974)

  • [125]

    J. Zhou, The sum-of-Gaussian parameterizations fitted with the available deuteron form factor data, https://github.com/TooLate0800/Deuteron_radius_fitting/tree/master/SOG_fitting, (2020)

  • [126]

    F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 101(2), 024001 (2020)

  • [127]

    E. Hummel and J. A. Tjon, Phys. Rev. C 42, 423-437 (1990)

  • [128]

    E. Hummel and J. A. Tjon, Phys. Rev. C 49, 21-39 (1994)

  • [129]

    D. W. Higinbotham, Parameterization of Deuteron Elastic Form Factors, https://github.com/dhiginbotham/DeuteronFormFactors, (2020)

  • [130]

    M. Ding, K. Raya, D. Binosi et al., Chin. Phys. C 44, 031002 (2020)

  • [131]

    G. Eichmann, E. Ferreira, and A. Stadler, Phys. Rev. D 105(3), 034009 (2022)

  • [132]

    Z.-Q. Yao, D. Binosi, Z.-F. Cui et al., Phys. Lett. B 824, 136793 (2022)

  • [133]

    D. Abrams et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 128(13), 132003 (2022)

  • [134]

    Z.-F. Cui, F. Gao, D. Binosi et al., Chin. Phys. Lett. Express 39(04), 041401 (2022)